Brad Taylor (BTTDgroup@hotmail.com)
3rd release: April 23rd, 2004
Thanks to the NES community. http://nesdev.parodius.com.
Special thanks to Nori and Goroh for thier existing related docs (and Ki and
Sgt. Bowhack for their respective translations), and to the one known as “D”
for his preliminary ROM BIOS documentation he posted on NESdev, a long time
Recommended literature: Nintendo’s patent document on the operation of the
FDS’s integrated electronic sound synthesizer (U.S.#4,783,812); this device
is not covered in this document.
Note: to display this document properly, your text viewer needs two things:
1. support for the classic VGA-based text mode 256 character set with
line-drawing characters. 2. word-wrap. windows notepad can easially do both
if you change the font over to terminal style.
What this document describes
- general information on the RAM adaptor hardware
- 2C33/LH2833 pin nomenclature & signal descriptions
- the RAM adaptor’s disk related hardware facilities
- ROM BIOS general information
- the steps involved in booting an FDS disk
- proper procedures for low-level disk I/O port programming
- how disk system games interact with the ROM BIOS
- ROM BIOS disk I/O interface routines and structures
- ROM BIOS disk I/O routine emulation considerations
- brief description of FDS Disk drive operation
- the FDS data transfer protocol
- FDS disk magnetic encoding format
- Magnetically recording data onto a disk
- low level disk data storage layout
- CRC calculations for files on FDS disks
- RAM adaptor pinouts & their function
- Steps to emulating the disk drive
- Getting FDS disk games to boot that normally don’t
- Circumventing copy protection
- ROM BIOS disassembly
Even when considering the limitations of the hardware (and it’s short,
2-year product cycle), it’s not very hard to understand the reason why the
Famicom Disk System continues to impress all who see it in action for the
first time; it turns the NES/FC into a real personal computing platform.
Using floppy disks to boot the system up into a favorite game is somthing a
person has to see for themselves to really appreciate. Additionally, the
very first Nintendo games to have any kind of progress-saving features
appeared in the FDS format. For gamers who had never seen the FDS versions
of games like Kid Icarus, Metroid, and Castlevania, these individuals are
usually very impressed with the fact that all these games were released
originally on the FDS with save features, opposed to the password system
their cart counterparts had (except Castlevania- Konami was cheap, and
scrapped *all* support for progress saving in the cart version. Finally, the
conventional sound of NES/FC games can almost be considered “crude” when
compared to games which take advantage of the extra sound channel present in
the FDS. People who have experienced the sound first hand will agree that it
really adds a new dimension to the gaming experience. Bottom line: the FDS
is one cool and unique piece of hardware.
The “FDS loader” project was inspired by my desire to play all kinds of FDS
games off the internet on my home-made stereo AV famicom console. So, I
quickly became interested in figuring out how FDS communication was being
accomplished there, since at the time, I had no knowledge of any existing
english-written FDS technical reference documents explaining how this was
accomplished. In the end, the project was completed, everything turned out
okay, and I was satisfied for a while. This was until I started to think
about designing a direct interface between the FDS RAM adaptor and a hard
drive (or even a 3.5″ floppy drive), and scrapping the PC’s intervention all
The biggest problems with doing this was the fact that the RAM adaptor not
only transfers data at a very sluggish 12KB/sec, but the RAM adaptor
transfer protocol is totally incompatible with any of the common transfer
protocols found on floppies or hard drives (for example, standard 3.5″
floppies store data in 4096-bit blocks (sectors), but FDS disk data storage
blocks are dynamic in length). To get around the incompatabilities, a
program similar to the one I wrote for the PC would have to be written for a
microcontroller, which would then serve as the interface between the RAM
adaptor, and the hard drive (or the like). Since I’m a man of efficiency, I
thought that using a microcontroller that has more memory and more
processing power than the thing I’m interfacing it to was a ridiculous idea.
So I started to wonder how to get around using the RAM adaptor for disk
communication as well.
It’s a known fact that most software (games) written for the FDS don’t do
the disk access themselves; they rely on the ROM BIOS to do the low level
disk access. All the game does is provide the file name(s) (or number(s) of
files) for the ROM BIOS to access. What is not common knowledge is the
details as to how games do this. Basically, I thought that if I could crack
this interface, then I could re-write the ROM BIOS code so that when the
game requests disk access, my routines would handle the call in the same
mannar as the conventional BIOS, but instead of using the FDS’s disk I/O
ports for transferring data between disk, I’d be using the I/O ports of an
IDE hard drive mapped into the NES/FC’s memory map.
So that was my goal in 2002: studying the FDS’s ROM BIOS code, and figuring
out how the hell games access the disk subroutines. Needless to say, that
goal has been realized, and documented here. In this addition (2004),
information on the technical operation of an FDS disk drive, ROM BIOS
disassembly, pinouts of 2C33 & LH2833 chips documented, plus an FDS disk
fixing technique, and copy protection circumvention information have all
been added here to integrate/combine all my FDS-related research findings to
date, into this single document.
Brief RAM adaptor information
The RAM adaptor is a piece of hardware which interfaces the NES/famicom
system hardware with the FDS disk drive. What you’ll find inside the RAM
adaptor is a custom 32KB DRAM chip, an 8KB RAM chip for the pattern table
memory, some circuitry for mixing the FDS’s audio channel in with the system
audio, and the heart of the RAM adaptor: the 2C33 chip.
The DRAM chip (part number: LH2833; built by Sharp) (which is mapped in at
$6000..$DFFF) has alot of connections exclusively to the 2C33 chip.
Obviously the 2C33 is controlling the DRAM’s refresh cycles and addressing,
since only a few system address lines are directly connected to the DRAM).
DRAM timings are a mystery, however it is obviously capable of being
randomly accessed every bus clock cycle.
The BIOS ROM (mapped in at $E000..$FFFF) is integrated into either the DRAM
chip (unlikely), or the 2C33 chip (very likely). It’s definite location
however is unknown (not that it really matters, anyway).
The 8KB RAM chip used for pattern table memory is completely mapped into PPU
address space $0000..$1FFF. The 2C33 can control name table mirroring, but
other than that, there is no other hardware in the RAM adaptor pertaining to
The heart of the RAM adaptor, the 2C33, contains all the circuitry related
to disk I/O, and the extra sound channel.
2C33/LH2833 pin nomenclature & signal descriptions
___ ___ |* \/ | /PRG >01] [64< VCC A14 >02]  XTAL A13 >03]  XTAL A12 >04] [61< VEE A11 >05]  (02) A10 >06]  (09) A9 >07]  (08) A8 >08] [57< R/W (22)  [56< PHI2 (23)  [55> /IRQ (24)  [54> AOUT (04)  [53< VEE (05)  [52> SER OUT (06)  [51< SER IN (03)  [50> $4025W.2 A7 >16] 2C33 [49> $4025W.1 A6 >17] [48> $4025W.0 A5 >18] [47< $4032R.2 A4 >19] [46< $4032R.1 A3 >20] [45< $4032R.0 A2 >21]  EXT0 A1 >22]  EXT1 A0 >23]  EXT2 --   EXT3 D0   EXT4 D1   EXT5 D2   EXT6 D3   EXT7/BATT D4  [36< CHR A10 D5  [35< CHR A11 D6  [34> VRAM A10 VEE >32]  D7 |________|
___ ___ |* \/ | PHI2 >01] [28< VCC (60)  [27< A13 (15)  [26< A14 (12)  [25< /PRG (13)   (11) (14)   (10) A7 >07]  (09) (58)  LH2833 [21< R/W (59)  [20< VEE --   D4 D5   D3 D6   D2 D7   D1 VEE >14]  D0 |________|
/PRG: this is the NES/FC’s A15 line NAND gated with the PHI2 line.
A0-A14, D0-D7, R/W, PHI2, /IRQ: the NES’s 6502 address, data, control, and
interrupt lines (see “2A03 technical reference” doc for details).
XTAL: leads to drop a 21.48 MHz crystal across, in order for the 2C33 to
function. Note that this frequency is exactly the same as the one clocking
the 2A03 & 2C02 chips in NTSC-based NES consoles.
VEE, VCC: ground, and +5VDC power signals, respectfully.
EXT0-EXT7: these bidirectional pins relate to the contents of internal
registers mapped in at addresses $4026 & $4033 (described in detail later).
$4025W.x: outputs fed directly off an internal latch mapped in at that
$4032R.x: inputs that effect the value that this port returns when accessed.
SER IN, SER OUT: serial input and output signals (FDS disk data signals).
CHR A10-A11, VRAM A10: PPU mirroring control.
AOUT: the analog output of the 2C33’s internal sound synthesizer.
(): numbers listed inside parenthesis indicate private pin connections
between the 2C33 and the LH2833 chips. Though undocumented, these signals
have to be responsible for maintaining the LH2833’s DRAM timing.
Disk related hardware in the 2C33
Disk hardware in the 2C33 is pretty much there only for processing &
dispatching the serial data that appears on the data in & out wires. All
other control signals directly reflect the binary values that FDS ports are
programmed with (and vice-versa).
There is some electronics used inside the 2C33 for converting RAW serial
data to the protocol used for storing binary data on a magnetic disk (and
vice-versa). Keep this in mind; in the port descriptions later, it suggests
that the disk data inputs/outputs are connected directly to internal shift
registers. However, this is only to simplify things. In reality, the disk
data is treated before entering/leaving the RAM adaptor. Furthermore, the
raw serial data read off a disk also contains the clock rate which the 2C33
uses to clock some of the shift registers by.
The disk related hardware inside the 2C33 include:
– 8-bit serial out/parallel in shift register (SR) (for serializing data to
store on disk)
– 8-bit serial in/parallel out SR (for assembling serial data from disk)
– 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) SR (poly=10001000000100001b (the X25
– 4-bit SR being used as a johnson counter (this counter keeps track of the
Note: This document will not go into further details on the internal
architecture of the 2C33 (since I don’t have any real blueprints of the
2C33). There may be other hardware (like additional shift registers, etc.)
present in the 2C33 that I’m unaware of. This architectural information is
only provided to give the programmer an idea of what’s going on inside the
– Ports $402x are Write-Only
– Ports $403x are Read-Only
Only the disk-related ports are mentioned here. Please consult another
FDS-related document for information on other FDS ports (like sound, timer,
Write data register.
The data that this register is programmed with will be the next 8-bit
quantity to load into the shift register (next time the byte transfer flag
raises), and to be shifted out and appear on pin 5 of the RAM adaptor cable
(2C33 pin 52).
|0||Electrically connected to pin C on RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 48). When active (0), causes disk drive motor to stop. During this time, $4025.1 has no effect.|
|1||Electrically connected to pin 3 on RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 49). When active (0), causes disk drive motor to turn on. This bit must stay active throughout a disk transfer, otherwise $4032.1 will always return 1. When deactivated, disk drive motor stays on until disk head reaches most inner track of disk.|
|2||Electrically connected to pin 1 on RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 50). Controls the disk data transfer direction. Set to 1 to read disk data, 0 to write.|
|3||Mirroring control. 0 = horizontal; 1 = vertical.|
|4||CRC control. ROM BIOS subroutines set this bit while processing the CRC data at the end of a block. While it is unclear why this bit is set during block reading, when this bit is set during a block write, this instructs the 2C33 to pipe the current contents of the CRC register to the disk (data in $4024 is effectively ignored during this time).|
|5||Always set to 1 (use unknown)|
|6||This bit is typically set while the disk head is in a GAP period on the disk. When this is done, it issues a reset to the 2C33’s internal CRC accumulator. |
– During reads, setting this bit instructs the 2C33 to wait for the first set bit (block start mark) to be read off the disk, before accumulating any serial data in the FDS’s internal shift registers, and setting the byte transfer ready flag for the first time (and then every 8-bit subsequent transfer afterwards).
– During writes, setting this bit instructs the 2C33 to immediately load the contents of $4024 into a shift register, set the byte transfer flag, start writing the data from the shift register onto the disk, and repeat this process on subsequent 8-bit transfers. While this bit is 0, data in $4024 is ignored, and a stream of 0’s is written to the disk instead.
|7||When set, generates an IRQ when the byte transfer flag raises. When set, generates an IRQ when the byte transfer flag raises.|
External connector output/input, respectfully. The outputs of $4026
(open-collector with 4.7K ohm pull-ups (except on bit 7)), are shared with
the inputs on $4033.
bit 2C33 ext.con --- ---- ------- 0 44 3 1 43 4 2 42 5 3 41 6 4 40 7 5 39 8 6 38 9 7 37 -
Bit 7 here is used to report the status of the drive’s power condition (1 =
power good). It is electrically connected to pin 6 on the RAM adaptor cable.
$4026 bit 7 must be set to 1 before the battery status can be checked via
$4033 (otherwise it will always return 0).
0: related to the IRQ timer registers (not described here).
1: Byte transfer flag. Set every time 8 bits have been transfered between
the RAM adaptor & disk drive (service $4024/$4031). Reset when $4024, $4031,
or $4030 has been serviced.
4: clear if the CRC register contains 0 (indicating that the transfer passed
6: Unclear operation. Prehaps relates to $4032.1.
7: Unclear operation. Prehaps relates to $4023.0.
Read data register.
This register is loaded with the contents of an internal shift register
every time the byte transfer flag raises. The shift register recieves it’s
serial data via pin 9 of the RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 51).
Disk drive status.
0: Electrically connected to pin A on RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 45). When
active (0), indicates that a disk is inserted in the drive.
1: Electrically connected to pin B on RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 46). On
the negative transition of this signal (-_), indicates that the drive head
is currently at the most outer track (beginning of the disk). This bit will
stay 0 until the disk drive head advances to the most inner track (end of
disk), or if $4025.1 is 1 at anytime.
2: Electrically connected to pin 7 on RAM adaptor cable (2C33 pin 47). When
active (0), indicates that a disk is inserted & is writable (as opposed to
6: considered to return 1
When the FDS is turned on, what you see & hear (the flashing Nintendo logo,
Mario & Luigi running around, etc.) is being ran off the ROM BIOS code.
The ROM BIOS code is 8K bytes in size, and resides in the CPU memory map at
$E000..$FFFF. There are dozens of subroutines inside the BIOS, but this
document will focus on the disk interface subroutines (described later).
BIOS data area
The BIOS uses several places in memory, but only some of them are expected
to be maintained by game code. They are as follows ( = 8 bits; () = 16
($DFFE): disk game IRQ vector (if [$0101] = 11xxxxxxB) ($DFFC): disk game reset vector (if ($0102) = $5335, or $AC35) ($DFFA): disk game NMI vector #3 (if [$0100] = 11xxxxxxB) ($DFF8): disk game NMI vector #2 (if [$0100] = 10xxxxxxB) ($DFF6): disk game NMI vector #1 (if [$0100] = 01xxxxxxB) ($0102): PC action on reset [$0101]: PC action on IRQ. set to $80 on reset [$0100]: PC action on NMI. set to $C0 on reset [$FF]: value last written to [$2000] $80 on reset. [$FE]: value last written to [$2001] $06 on reset [$FD]: value last written to [$2005]#1 0'd on reset. [$FC]: value last written to [$2005]#2 0'd on reset. [$FB]: value last written to [$4016] 0'd on reset. [$FA]: value last written to [$4025] $2E on reset. [$F9]: value last written to [$4026] $FF on reset.
The memory in $F9..$FF is always kept in sync with with the aforementioned
ports. This is done because these ports are write-only. Consequentially, the
current value these ports are programmed with can always be read here.
There may be more structured data areas in the zero page (for example, the
BIOS joypad routines use $F5..$F8 for storing controller reads), but only
the listed ones are used by the disk call subroutines.
Booting a disk game
Once a disk’s boot files have been loaded successfully into memory (more on
this later), ($0102) is assigned $AC35, and the BIOS data area (and their
respective ports) are set to the aforementioned reset values. Finally,
interrupts are enabled, and program control is transfered to the ($DFFC)
ROM BIOS disk procedures information
Pretty much all the disk-related BIOS code resides in the range
[$E1C7..$E7BA], so keep that in mind when looking at a ROM BIOS disassembly.
– The ROM BIOS has disk routines, and disk subroutines. The routines are the
procedures that provide the interface to the software, and the subroutines
provide the routines the interface to the disk hardware. Later in this
document, all known disk routines, and important disk subroutines will be
|disk subroutine data area|
All ROM BIOS disk subroutines use a small amount of zero page memory. Disk
routines usually pass parameters to the subroutines via this memory area.
Disk routines do NOT save any data residing in this area prior to calling
subroutines, so procedures that call disk routines must be sure NOT to keep
important data in this area during the call. The following list describes
the zero page memory used by the subroutines, and their common use ( = 8
bits; () = 16 bits).
($00) first hardcoded parameter
($02) second hardcoded parameter
[$04] previous stack frame
[$05] error retry count
[$06] file counter
[$07] current block type
[$08] boot ID code
[$09] not 0 to make dummy reads
($0A) destination address
($0C) byte xfer count
[$0E] file found counter
Aside from this memory, disk subroutines also expect that the ROM BIOS data
area ($F9..$FF) is maintained properly.
|common disk errors|
When a disk I/O operation fails (for one reason or another), an error # is
generated, reflecting the nature of the failure. The common error #’s used
are as follows (special error numbers will be mentioned later).
00: disk I/O successful (no error)
01: ($4032.0) disk not set
02: ($4033.7) power supply failure (i.e., battery)
03: ($4032.2) disk is write protected
21: ‘*NINTENDO-HVC*’ string in block 1 doesn’t match
22: block type 1 expected
23: block type 2 expected
24: block type 3 expected
25: block type 4 expected
27: ($4030.4) block failed CRC
28: ($4030.6) file ends prematurely during read
29: ($4030.6) file ends prematurely during write
30: ($4032.1) disk head has reached most inner track (end)
ROM BIOS disk subroutine
The following is a documentation on some of the most important ROM BIOS disk
subroutines (including entry point addresses in the NES/FC memory map). This
information is provided mostly to demonstrate the exact procedures the ROM
BIOS follows during disk I/O transfers, since higher-level disk interface
procedures (described later) are a much easier and more practical way of
accessing disk data.
A pseudo-code listing of the low-level events that occur in pretty much all
of the procedures described is provided. The pseudo-code reproduces the I/O
events *exactly* as the ROM BIOS code executes them in (even though some of
the writes seem superfluous). Emulator authors and FDS low-level code
developers should find this information especially useful. In the pseudo
code, “x” is used to represent a bit that doesn’t matter (during
comparisons), or a bit that is not changed (during assignments).
Entry point: $E153
Y on call: delay in milliseconds
description: a time delay generator.
Entry point: $E7A3
A on call: byte to write to disk
A on return: byte read from disk
description: Waits for an IRQ to occur, then reads [$4031] & writes [$4024].
Only the current status of the write flag ($4025.2) determines if data is
actually written to disk, or if valid data is read off the disk.
(Wait for IRQ occurence) temp=[$4031] [$4024]=A A=temp return
Entry point: $E781
X on call: error code
A,X on return: error code
Description: restores stack to a prior state before returning, and
terminates data transfer.
S = [$04]; restore stack frame to a previous state [$4025] = 0010x11x; disable scan disk bit A = X = ErrorCode return
Entry Point: $E64D
Description: used to initilalize the disk drive for data transfers.
[$4025] = 0010x110; stop motor (if it was already running) Delay(512) [$4025] = 0010x111; no effect [$4025] = 0010x101; scan disk Delay(150); allow pleanty of time for motor to turn on [$4026] = 1xxxxxxx; enable battery checking if ([$4033] = 0xxxxxxx);check battery good bit then Error($02) [$4025] = 0010x110; stop motor again [$4025] = 0010x111; no effect [$4025] = 0010x101; scan disk again repeat if ([$4032] = xxxxxxx1) then Error($01); constantly examine disk set until ([$4032] = xxxxxx0x);wait for ready flag to activate return
Entry point: $E68F
A on call: expected block type
Description: compares the first byte in a new data block to the one passed
in A. Generates an error if test fails.
Delay(5); advance 5 ms into GAP period [$4025] = x1xxxxxx; wait for block start mark to appear [$0101] = 01000000; set IRQ mode to disk byte transfer [$4025] = 1xxxxxxx; enable disk transfer IRQs if (XferByte <> BlockType);test first byte in block then Error($21+BlockType) return
Entry point: $E6B0
A on call: block type to create
Description: creates a new data block, and writes the passed block type to
it as the first byte.
[$4025] = 00x0x0xx; set transfer direction to write Delay(10); create a 10 ms GAP period [$4024] = 00000000; zero out write data register [$4025] = 01x0x0xx; start writing data via $4024 to disk [$0101] = 01000000; set IRQ mode to disk byte transfer [$4025] = 1xxxxxxx; enable disk transfer IRQs XferByte($80); write out block start mark XferByte(BlockType); write out specified block type return
Entry point: $E706
Description: called when all (no more and no less) data from a block has
been read in. Tests CRC bit to verify data block’s integrity.
XferByte; dummy read in CRC byte 1 if ([$4030] = x1xxxxxx) then Error($28) [$4025] = xxx1xxxx; activate process CRC bit XferByte; dummy read in CRC byte 2 if ([$4030] = xxx1xxxx);test (CRC accumulator = zero) status then Error($27) [$4025] = 00x0x1xx; disable further disk IRQ's, etc. if ([$4032] = xxxxxxx1);check disk set status then Error($01) return
Entry point: $E729
Description: called when all data has been written to a block. Writes out
16-bit CRC value generated by the FDS hardware as last 2 bytes of file.
XferByte; pipes last byte written into shift registers if ([$4030] = x1xxxxxx) then Error($29) [$4025] = xxx1xxxx; activate process CRC bit Delay(0.5); contents of CRC register written for 0.5 ms if ([$4032] = xxxxxx1x);check drive ready status then Error($30); disk head reached end of disk [$4025] = 00x0x1xx; disable further disk IRQ's, etc. if ([$4032] = xxxxxxx1);check disk set status then Error($01) return
Disk block processing examples
(reading first block on disk) WaitForRdy; initalize drive & wait for ready flag Delay(267); advance 267 ms into first GAP period CheckBlkType(); wait for block start mark & confirm block type (where data can be read from disk) EndOfBlkRead (writing first block on disk *) WaitForRdy [$4025] = 00x0x0xx; set transfer direction to write Delay(398); create a 398 ms GAP period WriteBlkType(); 10 more ms of GAP, then write block type (where data can be written to disk) EndOfBlkWrite (reading subsequent blocks on disk) CheckBlkType() (where data can be read from disk) EndOfBlkRead (writing subsequent blocks on disk) WriteBlkType() (where data can be written to disk) EndOfBlkWrite (ending disk transfer, including if an error occurs) Error(); error # is set to 0 when disk xfer successful
*: the ROM BIOS code does not provide any standard way of doing this. Games
that must rewrite the first data block on a FDS disk should follow the
example given here. The delay value listed is an approximation of the size
that first GAP period on the disk should be. The figure is based on the size
that GAP periods on typical FDS disks are (it seems to follow the figure
1.5x, where x is the time the ROM BIOS waits in the gap period during the
reading of the first block).
ROM BIOS disk routines
These are the routines that FDS games use for disk access (presumably the
only ones). They are called directly from FDS game code via JSR $xxxx
instructions. The parameters that the routines work on are hardcoded into
the instruction stream following the JSR $xxxx instruction. Each parameter
is 16-bits, and one or two may be present. The called subroutines always fix
the stack so that program control is returned to the instruction after the
– when one of these routines is called, the disk set status ($4032.0), and
for routines that write to the disk, write protect status ($4032.2) are
checked before starting the disk transfer. If these tests fail, a final
error # is generated. If an error occurs during a disk transfer, a second
attempt at the transfer is made before the error is considered to be final.
– after any final error is generated, program control is returned to the
instruction to follow the call, and the error code will be in A and X, with
the sign and zero flags set to reflect the error #.
– don’t expect disk calls to return quick; it may take several seconds to
– the ROM BIOS always uses disk IRQ’s to transfer data between the disk, so
programs must surrender IRQ control to the ROM BIOS during these disk calls.
The value at [$0101] however, is preserved on entry, and restored on exit.
Parameters and procedures
The types of structures that the disk routines work with will be described
first, and then the disk routines themselves.
|Disk identify header string (DiskID)|
This is a commonly used string. It consists of 10 bytes which are all
compared directly against bytes 15..24 (right after the ‘*NINTENDO-HVC*’
string) of the disk’s header block (block type 1; always the first one on
the disk). If any of the bytes fail the comparison, an appropriate error #
is generated. Comparisons of immaterial data can be skipped by placing an
$FF byte in the appropriate place in the DiskID string (for example, when
the ROM BIOS boots a disk, it sets all the fields in the DiskID string to
-1, except disk side #, and disk #, which are set to 0 (so these fields have
to match 0)). The following chart describes the DiskID structure, and the
error #’s returned when a comparison fails.
offset size error# description ------ ---- ------ ----------- 0 1 $04 game manufacturer code 1 4 $05 game ASCII name string 5 1 $06 game version 6 1 $07 disk side # 7 1 $08 disk # 8 1 $09 extra disk # data 9 1 $10 extra disk # data A -
|File load list (LoadList)|
This string is used when games need to specify which files to load from disk
into memory. Each byte in LoadList specifies a file to load into memory. As
file headers are sequentially read off the disk, the file identification
code (FileID; byte offset 2 in block types 3) is compared to every element
in the LoadList. If a match is found, the file is loaded. This is done until
there are no more files on the disk (as indicated by the file count stored
in block type 2 on the disk). The LoadList can be terminated by an $FF
entry. Only the first 20 entries in the list will be processed (this is done
because only about 800 clock cycles are available to the compare algorithm
during this time). If $FF is the first element in the string, then this
indicates that the boot load file code (BootID; stored on the disk in block
1, byte offset 25) is to be used for deciding which files to load off disk
(in this case, the condition for loading a file is (BootID >= FileID)).
|File header (FileHeader)|
This structure is specified when a file is to be written to the disk. The
first 14 bytes of this structure directly specify the data to use for
generating a file header block (type 3, bytes [2..15]) to write to disk. The
last 2 entries concern the file data to be written to disk (block type 4).
The following is a table describing the FileHeader structure.
offset size description ------ ---- ----------- 00 1 file ID code 01 8 file name 09 2 load address 0B 2 file data size 0D 1 load area (0 = CPU data; other = PPU) 0E 2 source address of file data (NOT written to disk) 10 1 source address type (0=CPU,other=PPU; NOT written to disk) 11 -
|Disk information (DiskInfo)|
This is a data structure returned by a subroutine, of collected information
from the disk (list of files on disk, disk size, etc.). The following table
is a description of that structure.
offset size ------ ---- 0 1 game manufacturer code 1 4 game ASCII name string 5 1 game version 6 1 disk side # 7 1 disk # 8 1 extra disk # data 9 1 extra disk # data A 1 # of files on disk (the following block will appear for as many files as the "# of files on disk" byte indicates) B 1 file ID code C 8 file name (ASCII) (the following is present after the last file info block. Disk size is equal to the sum of each file's size entry, plus an extra 261 per file.) x 1 disk size high byte x+1 1 disk size low byte x+2 -
Entry point: $E1F8
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
RETaddr+2: pointer to LoadList
A on return: error code
Y on return: count of files actually found
Description: Loads files specified by DiskID into memory from disk. Load
addresses are decided by the file’s header.
entry point: $E237
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
RETaddr+2: pointer to FileHeader
A on return: error code
special error: #$26 if verification stage fails
Description: appends the file data given by DiskID to the disk. This means
that the file is tacked onto the end of the disk, and the disk file count is
incremented. The file is then read back to verify the write. If an error
occurs during verification, the disk’s file count is decremented (logically
hiding the written file).
Entry point: $E239
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
RETaddr+2: pointer to FileHeader
A on call: file sequence # for file to write
A on return: error code
special error: #$26 if verification fails
Description: same as “Append File”, but instead of writing the file to the
end of the disk, A specifies the sequential position on the disk to write
the file (0 is the first). This also has the effect of setting the disk’s
file count to the A value, therefore logically hiding any other files that
may reside after the written one.
|Get Disk Information|
Entry point: $E32A
RETaddr: pointer to DiskInfo
A on return: error code
Description: fills DiskInfo up with data read off the current disk.
|Adjust File count|
Entry point: $E2BB
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
A on call: number to reduce current file count by
A on return: error code
Special error: #$31 if A is less than the disk’s file count
Description: reads in disk’s file count, decrements it by A, then writes the
new value back.
|Check File count|
Entry point: $E2B7
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
A on call: number to set file count to
A on return: error code
Special error: #$31 if A is less than the disk’s file count
Description: reads in disk’s file count, compares it to A, then sets the
disk’s file count to A.
|Set File count (alt. 1)|
Entry point: $E305
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
A on call: number to set file count to
A on return: error code
Description: sets the disk’s file count to A.
|Set File count (alt. 2)|
entry point: $E301
RETaddr: pointer to DiskID
A on call: number to set file count to minus 1
A on return: error code
Description: sets the disk’s file count to A+1.
ROM BIOS disk routine emulation considerations
For ambitious NES/FC emulator authors, sporting a built-in FDS disk routine
interface (and scrapping the disk-related ROM BIOS code alltogether), can
make FDS-written games run on an NES emulator as fast as cart/ROM based
games. This means that you will probably never even notice a single
save/load screen while playing any FDS game you can think of, other than the
regular change side prompts.
For emulators which base their NES 6502 emulation address decoding on a
full-sized 17-bit address look-up table, trapping access to FDS routines is
a snap. Other emulators may have to use 6502 jam opcodes at the target
addresses of a disk routine in the ROM BIOS, to tell your 6502 engine to
transfer control to another emulator routine handling the FDS disk request.
Once access to these routines are trapped, you would write your handlers to
perform the same task as the ROM BIOS code, except without having to deal
with using a virtual 2C33 engine to access disk data. Also, CPU cycle count
information is irrelivant, so there’s no point in worrying about it. Since
you’ll likely have the FDS disk data cached somewhere in your emulator’s
heap, most the work your disk routine has to do will consist of copying a
few thousand bytes from FDS disk cache memory, into the NES’s memory map.
Another bonus of emulating disk routines, is that when disk access is
requested by a game, the proper side & disk # are specified along with the
call. These parameters can be examined, and the matching FDS disk image can
be selected, without ever having to prompt the user on which side, (or even
the game disk) to choose. The only prompts that the user will have to deal
with, are ones that ask the user to change the disk. Since disk side and
game type is irrelivant because the game specifies that info, all the user
has to do is push a single button to get the FDS emulator to continue the
game’s action again.
For the less ambitious emulator author who doesn’t want to write their own
FDS disk call emulator, but still would like to see a decrease in load/save
times, here’s a suggestion. The ROM BIOS disk subroutines call a wait
routine (waiting for an IRQ) whenever a byte is to be transfered to/from the
disk. The solution to this is to change the wait loop branch target so that
it branches directly to the IRQ handler for reading/writing disk data. This
way, data is accessed as fast as the 6502 emulation will allow. Another way
of decreasing the load/save times is by not limiting the # of 6502 clock
cycles per frame that occur during the disk call.
Brief description of FDS Disk drive operation
Data coming out of the FDS disk drive is a real time representation of what
data the head is currently reading. This means that no formatting of the
data occurs. The head is always advancing across the disk at a constant rate
(sequential access) as the disk spins. When the head reaches the end of the
disk (most inner track), it returns to the beginning of the disk (most outer
track) and the cycle repeats, upon request from the RAM adaptor. This means
that on every scan, the entire disk is read (which takes about 6 seconds).
The disk drive signals the RAM adaptor when the head has been positioned to
the outer most track, and is starting a new scan.
FDS data transfer protocol
In any data transfer, 2 pieces of information (signals) must be sent:
– a signal that represents the rate at which the data is being sent
– the actual data
Like most disk drive units, the FDS disk drive is sending it’s data out via
serial connection (1 wire, meaning 1 bit at a time). Data prerecorded on FDS
disks have already had the 2 aforementioned signals “combined” using an XOR
algorithm described below (note that I’ve used underscores (_) and hyphens
(-) to respectfully represent 0 and 1 logic levels in my diagram below).
Rate ----____----____----____----____----____----____----____----____----____ Data ----------------________________________--------________---------------- XOR ____----____--------____----____----________--------________----____---- Disk ____-_______-___________-_______-___________-_______________-_______-___ time --->
Rate is the signal that represents the intervals at which data (bits) are
transferred. A single data bit is transferred on every 0 to 1 (_-) transition
of this signal. The RAM adaptor expects a transfer rate of 96.4kHz, although
the tolerance it has for this rate is ٌ10%. This tolerance is necessary
since, the disk drive can NOT turn the disk at a constant speed. Even though
it may seem constant, there is a small varying degree in rotation speed, due
to it’s physical architecture.
Data is the desired sequential binary data to be serialized. I specifically
chose the data used here to demonstrate how it would be stored on a FDS
disk. Note that if data changes, it changes syncronously with the 0 to 1
(_-) transition of the Rate signal.
XOR represents the result of a logical exclusive OR performed on the Rate
and Data signals.
Disk represents what is ACTUALLY recorded on a FDS disk (and therefore, what
is coming out of the disk drive, and going to the RAM adaptor). This signal
is constructed of pulses that are written in sync with every 0 to 1 (_-)
transition of the XOR result signal. In reality, the length of these pulses
(the time it stays as 1) is about 1 microsecond. When the RAM adaptor sends
data out to write to the disk, it is also in this format (although logically
inverted compared to the diagram shown above). However, data sent to the RAM
adaptor is not required to be in this format. The RAM adaptor responds to
the 0 to 1 (_-) transitions in the serial data signal rather than the length
of the pulses. This is why the RAM adaptor will interpret both serial data
types (XOR or Disk) indifferently.
FDS disk magnetic encoding format
The system for magnetically storing data on FDS disks is very simple. At any
instant, when the disk head is reading the disk, it has no way of telling
what magnetic charge the current section of disk area has (consequently, the
head produces no voltage). Because of how the physics of magnetic inductance
works, the head will *only* generate voltage while a section of the disk
track containing opposite charges is being read. During this time, the head
produces a spike in voltage (the duration of the spike is a function of the
width of the head (the area physically contacting the disk’s surface), and
the rotation speed of the disk). These spikes are then amplified, and sent
to the data out pin on the drive. This is how data encoding on FDS disks is
made. The following diagram should provide more explanation:
_____ _____ _____ POL \_____/ \_____/ \_____/ DATA -_____-_____-_____-_____-_____-_____ time --->
POL represents the polarity of the magnetic charge on a typical disk track.
DATA is the interpretation of the POL changes, and is also the digital
signal that appears on the “data out” signal of the drive as a result.
Magnetically recording data onto disk
Data entering the disk drive intended to be written onto the disk is not
written directly. Like the RAM adaptor, the data input on the disk drive
responds to the positive-going edge of pulses fed into it. This is because
the data is fed into an internal positive-edge triggered toggle flip-flop
(divide-by-2 counter). The output status of this flip-flop is then the
signal that is directed to the drive’s write head during the time disk
writing is to be engaged. The 2 write head wires are connected to the
flip-flop’s complimentary outputs, so that they are always in opposite
states during the writing phase. During writing, the current that flows
through the write head (in either direction) is about 20 to 25 milliamperes.
The following chart outlines the relationship between these signals:
Din ----__--__--____--__----______--____---- W1 ______----______----__________------____ W2 ------____------____----------______---- time --->
Din is the data entering the drive, intended to be written to disk.
W1 & W2 represent the digital status of the wires connected to the disk
drive’s write head.
Low level disk data layout/storage
Now that we have covered the communication protocol used, let’s talk about
the layout of data structures on the disks. Nori’s document has done a good
job of providing information on the way RAW data is layed out on the disk.
At this point, I recommend referring to Nori’s “fds-nori.txt” and reading
the first half of the document describing the disk data structures.
Here, I would like to elaborate on some items found in the aforementioned
document. Note that any references to bit or byte data transfers assume the
standard 96.4kHz xfer bit rate (meaning 1 bit is transfered in 1/96400
– The disk drive unit signals the RAM adaptor when the head has moved to the
beginning of the disk via the “-ready” signal it sends out (more on this
later). The “-ready” signal is based on a mechanical switch inside the drive
which is activated when the head is brought back to the outer most edge of
the disk (the beginning). Because the switch will usually be triggered
prematurely, the first 13000 bits (approx.) of data the drive will send out
immediately after this switch is activated will be invalid. To compensate
for this, the RAM adaptor purposely ignores the first 26100 bits (approx.)
sent to it since it recieves the “-ready” signal from the disk drive.
– After this period, the RAM adaptor is going to be interpreting data read
off the disk. Because of the many mechanical variables these disk drive
units have, the data recorded on the disk cannot anticipate the exact point
at which the RAM adaptor will start accepting data. Therefore, a padding
mechanism is used, which is reffered to here as the “GAP” period.
– All GAP periods recorded on the disk are composed entirely of binary coded
0’s. The RAM adaptor ignores these 0’s (meaning that there is no size limit
to any GAP period recorded on the disk) until a set (1) bit is recieved,
which identifies the start of a file (reffered to in Nori’s doc. as the
“block start mark”). The data immediately following this bit makes up the
file data. Size of the file is then determined by the file data read in
(consult Nori’s doc). Note that this is the only way to determine the size
of a file, since there really is no mechanism implemented (like there is for
the start of a file) to indicate where a file’s data ends.
– The order serial binary data is recorded on the disk in is the little
endian format. Lesser significant bits are sent first before greater, and
same for bytes.
– The length of the first GAP period present on typical FDS disks (relative
to the instant the disk drive’s “-ready” signal is activated) is about 40000
bits, after which the first block start mark (indicating the beginning of
the first file) will appear.
– Writing to the disk does not occur in sync with the existing data on the
disk. Where a write period starts and ends is bad news because it creates a
gap between pulses almost always of an invalid length. This would lead to
the RAM adaptor misinterpreting the data, causing errors. To overcome this,
the RAM adaptor always ignores the first 488 bits (aprox.) to follow after
the immediate end of any file. This period allows the RAM adaptor (or the
game rather) an oppertunity to make the switch from reading from the disk to
writing or vice-versa.
– After this period, the adaptor will expect another gap period, which will
then lead into a block start mark bit, and the next file. This cycle repeats
until there are no more files to be placed on a disk.
– The typical GAP period size used between files on FDS disks is roughly 976
bits (this includes the bits that are ignored by the RAM adaptor).
– The rest of the disk is filled with 0’s after the last file is recorded
(although it really shouldn’t matter what exists on the disk after this).
Special thanks to Val Blant for assistance in cracking the CRC algorithm
used by the FDS.
The “block end mark” is a CRC calculation appended to the immediate end of
every file. It’s calculation is based exclusively on that files’ data. The
CRC is 16-bits, and is generated with a 17 bit poly. The poly used is
10001000000100001b (the X25 standard). Right shift operations are used to
calculate the CRC (this effectively reverses the bit order of the
polynomial, resulting in the 16-bit poly of 8408h). A x86 example is shown
below (note that ; is used to separate multiple statements on one line, and
// is used for comments). The file this algorithm is designed to work on has
no block start mark in it ($80), and has 2 extra bytes at the end (where a
CRC calculation would normally reside) which are 0’d. While the block start
mark is actually used in the calculation of a FDS file CRC, you’ll see in
the algo below that the block start mark q’ty ($80) is moved directly into a
// ax is used as CRC accumulator // si is the array element counter // di is a temp reg // Size is the size of the file + 2 (with the last 2 bytes as 0) // Buf points to the file data (with the 2 appended bytes) mov ax,8000h // this is the block start mark sub si,si // zero out file byte index ptr @1: mov dl,byte ptr Buf[si] inc si shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di shr dl,1; rcr ax,1; sbb di,di; and di,8408h; xor ax,di cmp si,Size jc @1 // ax now contains the CRC.
Of course, this example is only used to show how the CRC algorithm works.
Using a precalculated CRC look-up table is a much faster (~5 cc/it) method
to calculate CRCs in the loop (the above method consumes over 40 clock
cycles per iteration). However, if speed is not an issue, the above code
uses only a fraction of the memory a table look-up implementation would
consume. More memory can be saved by loading the polynomial value into a
register, and even more by rolling the repeated instructions up into a
FDS RAM adaptor control signals
Special thanks to Christopher Cox for additional FDS wiring information not
غغغغغغغ غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ غغغ 1 3 5 7 9 B غغغ غغغ غغغ غغغ 2 4 6 8 A C غغغ غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ
Open-end view of the RAM adaptor’s disk drive connector.
pin # *2C33 pin *RAM pins signal description ----- --------- --------- ------------------ 1 50 5 (green) (O) -write 2 64 C (cyan) (O) VCC (+5VDC) 3 49 6 (blue) (O) -scan media 4 32 1 (brown) (O) VEE (ground) 5 52 3 (orange) (O) write data 6 37 B (pink) (I) motor on/battery good 7 47 8 (grey) (I) -writable media 8 - - (I) motor power (note 1) 9 51 4 (yellow) (I) read data A 45 A (black) (I) -media set B 46 9 (white) (I) -ready C 48 7 (violet) (O) -stop motor
notes on symbols
(O): Signal output.
(I): Signal input.
– : Indicates a signal which is active on a low (0) condition.
* : These are corresponding pinouts for the 2C33 I/O chip, and the other end
of the RAM adaptor cable, which both are located inside the RAM adaptor.
1 : The RAM adaptor does not use this signal (there is no wire in the cable
to carry the signal). An electronically controlled 5-volt power supply
inside the disk drive unit generates the power that appears here. This power
is also shared with the drive’s internal electric motor. Therefore, the
motor only comes on when there is voltage on this pin.
While active, this signal indicates that data appearing on the “write data”
signal pin is to be written to the storage media.
(O) write data
This is the serial data the RAM adaptor issues to be written to the storage
media on the “-write” condition.
(O) -scan media
While inactive, this instructs the storage media pointer to be reset (and
stay reset) at the beginning of the media. When active, the media pointer is
to be advanced at a constant rate, and data progressively transferred
to/from the media (via the media pointer).
(O) -stop motor
Applicable mostly to the FDS disk drive unit only, the falling edge of this
signal would instruct the drive to stop the current scan of the disk.
(I) motor on/battery good
Applicable mostly to the FDS disk drive unit only, after the RAM adaptor
issues a “-scan media” signal, it will check the status of this input to see
if the disk drive motor has turned on. If this input is found to be
inactive, the RAM adaptor interprets this as the disk drive’s batteries
having failed. Essentially, this signal’s operation is identical to the
above mentioned “motor power” signal, except that this is a TTL signal
version of it.
(I) -writable media
When active, this signal indicates to the RAM adaptor that the current media
is not write protected.
(I) read data
when “-scan media” is active, data that is progressively read off the
storage media (via the media pointer) is expected to appear here.
(I) -media set
When active, this signal indicates the presence of valid storage media.
Applicable mostly to the FDS disk drive unit only, the falling edge of this
signal would indicate to the RAM adaptor that the disk drive has
acknowledged the “-scan media” signal, and the disk drive head is currently
at the beginning of the disk (most outer track). While this signal remains
active, this indicates that the disk head is advancing across the disk’s
surface, and apropriate data can be transferred to/from the disk. This
signal would then go inactive if the head advances to the end of the disk
(most inner track), or the “-scan media” signal goes inactive.
Steps to emulating the disk drive
Before a data transfer between the RAM adaptor and the disk drive/storage
media can commence, several control signals are evaluated and/or dispatched.
The order in which events occur, is as follows.
1. “-media set” will be examined before any other signals. Activate this
input when your storage media is present. Make sure this input remains
active throughout the transfer (and for a short time afterwards as well),
otherwise the FDS BIOS will report error #1 (disk set). If this signal is
not active, and a data transfer is requested, the BIOS will wait until this
signal does go active before continuing sending/examining control signals.
2. If the RAM adaptor is going to attempt writing to the media during the
transfer, make sure to activate the “-writable media” input, otherwise the
FDS BIOS will report error #3 (disk write protected). Note that on a real
disk drive, “-writable media” will active at the same time “-media set” does
(which is when a non-write protected disk is inserted into the drive). A few
FDS games rely on this, therefore for writable disks, the “-write enable”
flag should be activated simultaniously with “-media set”.
3. The RAM adaptor will set “-scan media”=0 and “-stop motor”=1 to instruct
the storage media to prepare for the transfer. This will only happen if the
first 2 conditions are satisfied.
4. “motor on/battery good” will be examined next. Always keep this input
active, otherwise the FDS BIOS will report error #2 (battery low).
5. Activating “-ready” will inform the RAM adaptor that the media pointer is
currently positioned at the beginning of the media, and is progressing. It
is during the time that this signal is active that media data
transfers/exchanges are made. Make sure this input remains active during the
transfer, otherwise the FDS BIOS will report an error. “-ready” shouldn’t be
activated until at least 14354 bit transfers (~0.15 seconds) have elapsed
relative to step #3.
6. During the transfer, the “-write” signal from the RAM adaptor indicates
the data transfer direction. When inactive, data read off of the media is to
appear on the “read data” signal. When active, data appearing on the “write
data” signal is to be recorded onto the media.
7. The RAM adaptor terminates the data transfer at it’s discretion (when it
has read enough or all the files off of the media). This is done when “-scan
media”=1 or “-stop motor=0”. After this, it is OK to deactivate the “-ready”
signal, and halt all media I/O operations.
|A few final notes|
– It is okay to tie “-ready” up to the “-scan media” signal, if the media
needs no time to prepare for a data xfer after “-scan media” is activated.
Don’t try to tie “-ready” active all the time- while this will work for 95%
of the disk games i’ve tested, some will not load unless “-ready” is
disabled after a xfer.
– Some unlicenced FDS games activate the “-stop motor” signal (and possibly
even “-write”, even though the storage media is not intended to be written
to) when a media transfer is to be discontinued, while “-scan media” is
still active. While this is an unorthodoxed method of doing this, the best
way to handle this situation is to give the “-stop motor” signal priority
over any others, and force data transfer termination during it’s activation.
– Check out my FDS loader project (which uploads *.FDS files to the RAM
adaptor) for source code to my working disk drive emulator.
Getting FDS disk games to boot that normally don’t
After finishing the FDS loader project, I discovered a way to get FDS games
that normally don’t work to now boot up successfully. The trick to doing
this lies in a part on the disk drive mechanism itself.
When you insert a disk into the drive, the disk bay lowers down, and
eventually the bottom side of the magnetic floppy contacts the head (the
head is at a constant alditude). On the top side of the magnetic floppy,
some kind of arm with a brush on it lowers onto the floppy’s surface, and
applies pressure on the floppy against the head, to allow for closer (or
better) contact with it.
I have discovered that by applying some extra force on this brush arm, disk
games that regularly do not boot up, will now work. However, do not apply
too much force, otherwise the friction from the brush will slow down the
disk’s RPM, and the RAM adaptor will not be able to boot from it anyway,
since the transfer rate will be out of range.
The permanent fix to this is to increase the tension that the spring already
in there applies. To remove the spring, you must pop out that pin that it’s
wrapped around (which is also the pin that supports the arm as well). With
the front of the drive facing towards you, chissel the pin from the right
side of it to pop it out.
It is neccessary to re-torque the spring, since simply adding an extra
revolution to the windings will offer too much tension. Use both your hands
(you may need to use needle-nosed plyers) to twist the spring in the SAME
direction in that it is supposed to be applying pressure in. This will
increase the size of the radius of the spring’s coil. Don’t overdue the
re-torquing; hand strength is all you need to do it. After this, the spring
is ready to be put back into the drive. It will be a little tricky to put
the spring back onto the pin (with the arm kind of in the way), so this
requires patience. If putting it back in seems easy, this means that you’re
not adding enough revolutions to the windings of the spring for force. At
any rate, make sure that the force applied after you put the spring back in
is a good deal more than when you removed it.
For an easier way of incerasing the pressure the brush arm applies against
the floppy without having to adjust/replace the arm’s spring, I’d try taping
some weight onto the arm (for example, a few pennies or dimes would make up
the weight well). Personally, I tried this before re-torquing the spring,
and it didn’t work out very well (mostly because the tape was always
brushing against somthing).
As for why certain games work with the default pressure, while others
require more, I would speculate that the surface of the disks in question
are rippled, possibly left that way after years of use. Without enough
pressure, the ripples are the only thing the head makes contact with, which
is only a fraction of the area it needs to contact in order to read the
magnetic data reliably.
But don’t take my word for it- just take a look at the surfaces of FDS disks
that boot, and compare it to ones that don’t. You’ll find that working disks
have a uniform surface, while the others will have tracks of wear on them,
with most of the wear appearing at the end of the disk (the most inner
tracks). The wear appears at the end because this is where the disk head is
put to rest after every disk scan.
Circumventing copy protection
Hardware disk copy protection
Apparently, Nintendo had designed FDS disk drive units so that they cannot
reprogram entire disks, while still somehow being able to write the contents
of individual files to the end of disks. Now, there’s alot of undocumented
things going on inside the disk drive unit, so I’m just going to say that
there are two evil IC’s you’ve got to watch out for inside the FDS disk
drive- the 3213, and the 3206. There is a collection of 6 “FDS-COPY” jpegs
over at NESdev which (pg. 4 right side, and pg. 5) give a pretty graphic
overview of the steps involved in modding a stock FDS disk drive, so that it
may reprogram disks. Although I haven’t built the specific circuit described
in the jpegs, I had designed & built a similar working circuit to defeat the
FDS’s evil copy protection circuitry, with excellent results.
Software disk copy protection
Special thanks to Chris Covell for bringing this to my attention.
Apparently, some FDS disks implement a very simple copy protection scheme,
which the game relies on in order for the game to refuse to work on the
copied disk. Normally, the number of files that exist on an FDS disk is
stored in the second block recorded on it. However, some games maintain
“invisible” files, which are basically files that exist beyond what the file
count number in the file count block indicates. This poses somewhat of a
problem for copy software like FDSLOADR, since these tools rely on the file
count block, and don’t assume that there is any valid data past the last
file found on the disk. This means that when these types of disks are
copied, the invisible files will be lost, and when the game loads the files
that do exist, the game’s going to give the user heat about there being a
file missing or somthing, gumming up the works. However in practice, when an
FDS disk is programmed, the unused end of the disk is usually completely
zeroed out, and this makes detecting the end of the disk simple: just wait
to find a GAP period of extreme length. Except in rare cases, this model for
detecting the true end of an FDS disk should generally provide the best
results for copying the complete contents for all types of FDS disks.
Physical disk lockout mechanism
Ever wonder why Nintendo engraved their company’s name along the handle edge
of all FDS disks? Inside the FDS disk drive bay, sitting just behind the
lower part of the front black plastic faceplate, is a little plastic block
with the letters “Nintendo” carved out of a hard plastic block. This
basically forces disks that don’t have holes in those locations from
completely loading into the drive, circumventing usage. Now while many
companies made FDS disks with those holes cut out, I’m sure there must be
some disks out there that are compatable with the FDS, but don’t have the
holes. So, the solution is to simply disassemble the FDS disk drive, remove
the disk cage, and remove the two screws securing the “Nintendo”
ROM BIOS disassembly
Special thanks to Tennessee Carmel-Veilleux for DCC6502, a 6502 code
disassembler he wrote, which I used for this disassembly here.
notes about disassembly
– tables like the one below display the bytes (hexidecimal pairs) as they
would appear in the actual ROM (big endian). only multi-byte numbers
preceeded by a “$” are stored in little endian.
– a few suboutines in this code work with hard-coded parameters (this is
data stored in the instruction stream following the JSR instruction). For
subroutines that use hard-coded parameters, you will see a JSR $xxxx,
followed by a comma, and the actual hardcoded (immediate) data. The
subroutines of course adjust the return address to make sure program control
returns to the address _after_ the hard-coded parameters.
– not all the code has been commented, but I have gone over every single
disk I/O related subroutine (which I could) find with a fine-toothed comb,
and have (hopefully) made adequate comments for easier comprehension of
;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ FDS ROM BIOS disassembly غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $E000 DB 00 ;FONT BITMAPS 384CC6C6C66438001838181818187E00 7CC60E3C78E0FE007E0C183C06C67C00 1C3C6CCCFE0C0C00FCC0FC0606C67C00 3C60C0FCC6C67C00FEC60C1830303000 7CC6C67CC6C67C007CC6C67E060C7800 386CC6C6FEC6C600FCC6C6FCC6C6FC00 3C66C0C0C0663C00F8CCC6C6C6CCF800 FEC0C0FCC0C0FE00FEC0C0FCC0C0C000 3E60C0DEC6667E00C6C6C6FEC6C6C600 7E18181818187E001E060606C6C67C00 C6CCD8F0F8DCCE006060606060607E00 C6EEFEFED6C6C600C6E6F6FEDECEC600 7CC6C6C6C6C67C00FCC6C6C6FCC0C000 7CC6C6C6DECC7A00FCC6C6CEF8DCCE00 78CCC07C06C67C007E18181818181800 C6C6C6C6C6C67C00C6C6C6EE7C381000 C6C6D6FEFEEEC600C6EE7C387CEEC600 6666663C18181800FE0E1C3870E0FE00 00000000000000000000000030302000 0000000030300000000000006C6C0800 3844BAAAB2AA4438 ;131 clock cycle delay Delay131: PHA $E14A LDA #$16 $E14C SEC $E14D SBC #$01 $E14F BCS $E14D $E151 PLA $E152 RTS ;millisecond delay timer. Delay in clock cycles is: 1790*Y+5. MilSecTimer: LDX $00 $E155 LDX #$fe $E157 NOP $E158 DEX $E159 BNE $E157 $E15B CMP $00 $E15D DEY $E15E BNE MilSecTimer $E160 RTS ;disable playfield & objects DisPfOBJ: LDA $FE $E163 AND #$e7 $E165 STA $FE $E167 STA $2001; [NES] PPU setup #2 $E16A RTS ;enable playfield & objects EnPfOBJ: LDA $FE $E16D ORA #$18 $E16F BNE $E165 ;disable objects DisOBJs: LDA $FE $E173 AND #$ef $E175 JMP $E165 ;enable objects EnOBJs: LDA $FE $E17A ORA #$10 $E17C BNE $E165 ;disable playfield DisPF: LDA $FE $E180 AND #$f7 $E182 JMP $E165 ;enable playfield EnPF: LDA $FE $E187 ORA #$08 $E189 BNE $E165 ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;NMI program controlغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine controls what action occurs on a NMI, based on [$0100]. ;[$0100] program control on NMI ;------- ---------------------- ;00xxxxxx: VINTwait was called; return PC to address that called VINTwait ;01xxxxxx: use [$DFF6] vector ;10xxxxxx: use [$DFF8] vector ;11xxxxxx: use [$DFFA] vector ;NMI branch target NMI: BIT $0100 $E18E BPL $E198 $E190 BVC $E195 $E192 JMP ($DFFA); 11xxxxxx $E195 JMP ($DFF8); 10xxxxxx $E198 BVC $E19D $E19A JMP ($DFF6); 01xxxxxx ;disable further VINTs 00xxxxxx $E19D LDA $FF $E19F AND #$7f $E1A1 STA $FF $E1A3 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $E1A6 LDA $2002; [NES] PPU status ;discard interrupted return address (should be $E1C5) $E1A9 PLA $E1AA PLA $E1AB PLA ;restore byte at [$0100] $E1AC PLA $E1AD STA $0100 ;restore A $E1B0 PLA $E1B1 RTS ;---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ;wait for VINT VINTwait: PHA; save A $E1B3 LDA $0100 $E1B6 PHA; save old NMI pgm ctrl byte $E1B7 LDA #$00 $E1B9 STA $0100; set NMI pgm ctrl byte to 0 ;enable VINT $E1BC LDA $FF $E1BE ORA #$80 $E1C0 STA $FF $E1C2 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 ;infinite loop $E1C5 BNE $E1C5 ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;IRQ program controlغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine controls what action occurs on a IRQ, based on [$0101]. IRQ: BIT $0101 $E1CA BMI $E1EA $E1CC BVC $E1D9 ;disk transfer routine ([$0101] = 01xxxxxx) $E1CE LDX $4031 $E1D1 STA $4024 $E1D4 PLA $E1D5 PLA $E1D6 PLA $E1D7 TXA $E1D8 RTS ;disk byte skip routine ([$0101] = 00nnnnnn; n is # of bytes to skip) ;this is mainly used when the CPU has to do some calculations while bytes ;read off the disk need to be discarded. $E1D9 PHA $E1DA LDA $0101 $E1DD SEC $E1DE SBC #$01 $E1E0 BCC $E1E8 $E1E2 STA $0101 $E1E5 LDA $4031 $E1E8 PLA $E1E9 RTI ;[$0101] = 1Xxxxxxx $E1EA BVC $E1EF $E1EC JMP ($DFFE); 11xxxxxx ;disk IRQ acknowledge routine ([$0101] = 10xxxxxx). ;don't know what this is used for, or why a delay is put here. $E1EF PHA $E1F0 LDA $4030 $E1F3 JSR Delay131 $E1F6 PLA $E1F7 RTI ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;load filesغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;loads files from disk into memory. ;params ;------ ;RETaddr pointer to 10-byte disk header compare string ;RETaddr+2 pointer to list of files to identify & load ;the disk header compare string is compared against the first 10 bytes to ;come after the '*NINTENDO-HVC*' string in the first block. if any matches ;fail, an error is generated. If the compare string has a -1 in it, that ;skips the testing of that particular byte. Generally, this string is used to ;verify that the disk side and number data of a disk is corect. ;the file ID list is simply a list of files to be loaded from disk. These ;ID numbers (1 byte each) are tested against the file ID numbers of the ;individual files on disk, and matched file IDs results in that particular ;file being loaded into memory. The list is assumed to contain 20 ID's, but ;-1 can be placed at the end of the string to terminate the search ;prematurely. If -1 is the first ID in the string, this means that a system ;boot is to commence. Boot files are loaded via the BootID code in the first ;block of the disk. Files that match or are less than this BootID code are ;the ones that get loaded. Everytime a matching file is found, a counter is ;incremented. When the load finishes, this count will indicate how many files ;were found. No error checking occurs with the found file count. ;if an error occurs on the first try, the subroutine will make an additional ;attempt to read the disk, before returning with an error code other than 0. ;returns error # (if any) in A, and count of found files in Y. LoadFiles: LDA #$00 $E1FA STA $0E $E1FC LDA #$ff; get 2 16-bit pointers $E1FE JSR GetHCPwNWPchk $E201 LDA $0101 $E204 PHA $E205 LDA #$02; error retry count $E207 STA $05 $E209 JSR $E21A $E20C BEQ $E212; return address if errors occur $E20E DEC $05; decrease retry count $E210 BNE $E209 $E212 PLA $E213 STA $0101 $E216 LDY $0E $E218 TXA $E219 RTS $E21A JSR ChkDiskHdr $E21D JSR Get#ofFiles;returns # in [$06] $E220 LDA $06 $E222 BEQ $E233; skip it all if none $E224 LDA #$03 $E226 JSR CheckBlkType $E229 JSR FileMatchTest $E22C JSR LoadData $E22F DEC $06 $E231 BNE $E224 $E233 JSR XferDone $E236 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;Write file & set file countغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;writes a single file to the last position on the disk, according to the ;disk's file count. uses header compare string, and pointer to file header ;structure (described in SaveData subroutine). ;this is the only mechanism the ROM BIOS provides for writing data to the ;disk, and it only lets you write one stinking file at a time! if that isn't ;enough, the disk's file count is modified everytime this routine is called ;so that the disk logically ends after the written file. ;logic: ;- if (WriteFile called) and (A <> -1), DiskFileCount := A ;- disk is advanced to the end, in accordance to DiskFileCount ;- writes data pointed to by RETaddr+2 to end of disk ;- DiskFileCount is increased ;- data is read back, and compared against data written ;- if error occurs (like the comparison fails), DiskFileCount is decreased ;note that DiskFileCount is the actual recorded file count on the disk. ;load hardcoded parameters AppendFile: LDA #$ff; use current DiskFileCount WriteFile: STA $0E; specify file count in A $E23B LDA #$ff $E23D JSR GetHCPwWPchk;loads Y with [$0E] on error $E240 LDA $0101 $E243 PHA ;write data to end of disk $E244 LDA #$03; 2 tries $E246 STA $05 $E248 DEC $05 $E24A BEQ $E265 $E24C JSR WriteLastFile $E24F BNE $E248 ;verify data at end of disk $E251 LDA #$02 $E253 STA $05 $E255 JSR CheckLastFile $E258 BEQ $E265 $E25A DEC $05 $E25C BNE $E255 ;if error occured during readback, hide last file $E25E STX $05; save error # $E260 JSR SetFileCnt $E263 LDX $05; restore error # ;return $E265 PLA $E266 STA $0101 $E269 TXA $E26A RTS WriteLastFile: JSR ChkDiskHdr $E26E LDA $0E $E270 CMP #$ff $E272 BNE $E288 $E274 JSR Get#ofFiles $E277 JSR SkipFiles; advance to end of disk $E27A LDA #$03 $E27C JSR WriteBlkType $E27F LDA #$00 $E281 JSR SaveData; write out last file $E284 JSR XferDone $E287 RTS $E288 STA $06 $E28A JSR Set#ofFiles $E28D JMP $E277 CheckLastFile: JSR ChkDiskHdr $E293 LDX $06; load current file count $E295 INX $E296 TXA $E297 JSR Set#ofFiles;increase current file count $E29A JSR SkipFiles; skip to last file $E29D LDA #$03 $E29F JSR CheckBlkType $E2A2 LDA #$ff $E2A4 JSR SaveData; verify last file $E2A7 JSR XferDone $E2AA RTS ;sets file count via [$06] SetFileCnt: JSR ChkDiskHdr $E2AE LDA $06 $E2B0 JSR Set#ofFiles $E2B3 JSR XferDone $E2B6 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;adjust file countغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;reads disk's original file count, then subtracts the A value from it and ;writes the difference to the disk as the new file count. uses header compare ;string. if A is greater than original disk file count, error 31 is returned. ;this routine has 2 entry points. one which adjusts the current file count ;via A, and one which simply sets the file count to the A value. Since this ;routine makes a disk read cycle no matter which entry point is called, it is ;better to use SetFileCnt0/1 to simply set the disk file count to A. SetFileCnt2: LDX #$ff; use A value $E2B9 BNE $E2BD AdjFileCnt: LDX #$00; use FileCnt-A $E2BD STX $09 $E2BF JSR GetHCPwWPchk $E2C2 LDA $0101 $E2C5 PHA ;get disk file count $E2C6 LDA #$03; 2 tries $E2C8 STA $05 $E2CA DEC $05 $E2CC BEQ $E2F1 $E2CE JSR GetFileCnt $E2D1 BNE $E2CA ;calculate difference $E2D3 LDA $06; load file count $E2D5 SEC $E2D6 SBC $02; calculate difference $E2D8 LDX $09 $E2DA BEQ $E2DE $E2DC LDA $02; use original accumulator value $E2DE LDX #$31; $E2E0 BCC $E2F1; branch if A is less than current file count $E2E2 STA $06 ;set disk file count $E2E4 LDA #$02; 2 tries $E2E6 STA $05 $E2E8 JSR SetFileCnt $E2EB BEQ $E2F1 $E2ED DEC $05 $E2EF BNE $E2E8 $E2F1 PLA $E2F2 STA $0101 $E2F5 TXA $E2F6 RTS ;stores file count in [$06] GetFileCnt: JSR ChkDiskHdr $E2FA JSR Get#ofFiles $E2FD JSR XferDone $E300 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;set disk file countغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine only rewrites a disk's file count (stored in block 2; specified ;in A). no other files are read/written after this. uses header compare ;string. SetFileCnt1: LDX #$01; add 1 to value in A $E303 BNE $E307 SetFileCnt0: LDX #$00; normal entry point $E307 STX $07 $E309 JSR GetHCPwWPchk $E30C LDA $0101 $E30F PHA $E310 CLC $E311 LDA $02; initial A value (or 3rd byte in HC parameter) $E313 ADC $07 $E315 STA $06 $E317 LDA #$02; 2 tries $E319 STA $05 $E31B JSR SetFileCnt $E31E BEQ $E324 $E320 DEC $05 $E322 BNE $E31B $E324 PLA $E325 STA $0101 $E328 TXA $E329 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;get disk informationغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this procedure reads the whole disk, and only returns information like ;disk size, filenames, etc. ;params ;------ ;RETaddr pointer to destination address for info. to collect ;info. format ;------------ ;0 1 manufacturer code ;1 4 game name string ;5 1 game version ;6 1 disk side # ;7 1 disk #1 ;8 1 disk #2 ;9 1 disk #3 ;A 1 # of files on disk ; (the following block will appear for as many files as the files on disk ; byte indicates) ;B 1 file ID code ;C 8 file name (ASCII) ; (the following is present after the last file info block) ;x 1 disk size high byte ;x+1 1 disk size low byte ;returns error # (if any) in A. GetDiskInfo: LDA #$00 $E32C JSR GetHCPwNWPchk;get 1 16-bit pointer; put A in [$02] $E32F LDA $0101 $E332 PHA $E333 LDA #$02 $E335 STA $05 $E337 JSR $E346 $E33A BEQ $E340; escape if no errors $E33C DEC $05 $E33E BNE $E337 $E340 PLA $E341 STA $0101 $E344 TXA $E345 RTS ;start up disk read process $E346 JSR StartXfer; verify FDS string at beginning of disk $E349 LDA $00 $E34B STA $0A $E34D LDA $01 $E34F STA $0B $E351 LDY #$00 $E353 STY $02 $E355 STY $03 ;load next 10 bytes off disk into RAM at Ptr($0A) $E357 JSR XferByte $E35A STA ($0A),Y $E35C INY $E35D CPY #$0a $E35F BNE $E357 $E361 JSR AddYtoPtr0A;add 10 to Word($0A) ;discard rest of data in this file (31 bytes) $E364 LDY #$1f $E366 JSR XferByte $E369 DEY $E36A BNE $E366 ;get # of files $E36C JSR EndOfBlkRead $E36F JSR Get#ofFiles;stores it in [$06] $E372 LDY #$00 $E374 LDA $06 $E376 STA ($0A),Y; store # of files in ([$0A]) $E378 BEQ $E3CB; branch if # of files = 0 ;get info for next file $E37A LDA #$03 $E37C JSR CheckBlkType $E37F JSR XferByte; discard file sequence # $E382 JSR XferByte; file ID code $E385 LDY #$01 $E387 STA ($0A),Y; store file ID code ;store file name string (8 letters) $E389 INY $E38A JSR XferByte $E38D STA ($0A),Y $E38F CPY #$09 $E391 BNE $E389 $E393 JSR AddYtoPtr0A;advance 16-bit dest ptr $E396 JSR XferByte; throw away low load address $E399 JSR XferByte; throw away high load address ;Word($02) += $105 + FileSize $E39C CLC $E39D LDA #$05 $E39F ADC $02 $E3A1 STA $02 $E3A3 LDA #$01 $E3A5 ADC $03 $E3A7 STA $03 $E3A9 JSR XferByte; get low FileSize $E3AC STA $0C $E3AE JSR XferByte; get high FileSize $E3B1 STA $0D $E3B3 CLC $E3B4 LDA $0C $E3B6 ADC $02 $E3B8 STA $02 $E3BA LDA $0D $E3BC ADC $03 $E3BE STA $03 $E3C0 LDA #$ff $E3C2 STA $09 $E3C4 JSR RdData; dummy read data off disk $E3C7 DEC $06; decrease file count # $E3C9 BNE $E37A ;store out disk size $E3CB LDA $03 $E3CD LDY #$01; fix-up from RdData $E3CF STA ($0A),Y $E3D1 LDA $02 $E3D3 INY $E3D4 STA ($0A),Y $E3D6 JSR XferDone $E3D9 RTS ;adds Y to Word(0A) AddYtoPtr0A: TYA $E3DB CLC $E3DC ADC $0A $E3DE STA $0A $E3E0 LDA #$00 $E3E2 ADC $0B $E3E4 STA $0B $E3E6 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;get hard-coded pointer(s)غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine does 3 things. First, it fetches 1 or 2 hardcoded 16-bit ;pointers that follow the second return address. second, it checks the ;disk set or even write-protect status of the disk, and if the checks fail, ;the first return address on the stack is discarded, and program control is ;returned to the second return address. finally, it saves the position of ;the stack so that when an error occurs, program control will be returned to ;the same place. ;params ;------ ;2nd call addr 1 or 2 16-bit pointers ;A -1 2 16-bit pointers are present ; other values 1 16-bit pointer present ;rtns (no error) ;--------------- ;PC original call address ;A 00 ;[$00] where parameters were loaded (A is placed in [$02] if not -1) ;(error) ;------- ;PC second call address ;Y byte stored in [$0E] ;A 01 if disk wasn't set ; 03 if disk is write-protected ;entry points GetHCPwNWPchk: SEC; don't do write-protect check $E3E8 BCS $E3EB GetHCPwWPchk: CLC; check for write protection ;load 2nd return address into Ptr($05) $E3EB TSX $E3EC DEX $E3ED STX $04; store stack pointer-1 in [$04] $E3EF PHP $E3F0 STA $02 $E3F2 LDY $0104,X $E3F5 STY $05 $E3F7 LDY $0105,X $E3FA STY $06 ;load 1st 16-bit parameter into Ptr($00) $E3FC TAX $E3FD LDY #$01 $E3FF LDA ($05),Y $E401 STA $00 $E403 INY $E404 LDA ($05),Y $E406 STA $01 $E408 LDA #$02 ;load 2nd 16-bit parameter into Ptr($02) if A was originally -1 $E40A CPX #$ff $E40C BNE $E41A $E40E INY $E40F LDA ($05),Y $E411 STA $02 $E413 INY $E414 LDA ($05),Y $E416 STA $03 $E418 LDA #$04 ;increment 2nd return address appropriately $E41A LDX $04 $E41C CLC $E41D ADC $05 $E41F STA $0104,X $E422 LDA #$00 $E424 ADC $06 $E426 STA $0105,X ;test disk set status flag $E429 PLP $E42A LDX #$01; disk set error $E42C LDA $4032 $E42F AND #$01 $E431 BNE $E43E $E433 BCS $E444; skip write-protect check ;test write-protect status $E435 LDX #$03; write-protect error $E437 LDA $4032 $E43A AND #$04 $E43C BEQ $E444 ;discard return address if tests fail $E43E PLA $E43F PLA $E440 LDY $0E $E442 TXA $E443 CLI $E444 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;disk header checkغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;routine simply compares the first 10 bytes on the disk coming after the FDS ;string, to 10 bytes pointed to by Ptr($00). To bypass the checking of any ;byte, a -1 can be placed in the equivelant place in the compare string. ;Otherwise, if the comparison fails, an appropriate error will be generated. ChkDiskHdr: JSR StartXfer; check FDS string $E448 LDX #$04 $E44A STX $08 $E44C LDY #$00 $E44E JSR XferByte $E451 CMP ($00),Y; compares code to byte stored at [Ptr($00)+Y] $E453 BEQ $E464 $E455 LDX $08 $E457 CPX #$0a $E459 BNE $E45D $E45B LDX #$10 $E45D LDA ($00),Y $E45F CMP #$ff $E461 JSR XferFailOnNEQ $E464 INY $E465 CPY #$01 $E467 BEQ $E46D $E469 CPY #$05 $E46B BCC $E46F $E46D INC $08 $E46F CPY #$0a $E471 BNE $E44E $E473 JSR XferByte; boot read file code $E476 STA $08 $E478 LDY #$1e; 30 iterations $E47A JSR XferByte; dummy read 'til end of block $E47D DEY $E47E BNE $E47A $E480 JSR EndOfBlkRead $E483 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;file count block routinesغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;these routines specifically handle reading & writing of the file count block ;stored on FDS disks. ;loads # of files recorded in block type #2 into [$06] Get#ofFiles: LDA #$02 $E486 JSR CheckBlkType $E489 JSR XferByte $E48C STA $06 $E48E JSR EndOfBlkRead $E491 RTS ;writes # of files (via A) to be recorded on disk. Set#ofFiles: PHA $E493 LDA #$02 $E495 JSR WriteBlkType $E498 PLA $E499 JSR XferByte; write out disk file count $E49C JSR EndOfBlkWrite $E49F RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;file match testغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine uses a byte string pointed at by Ptr($02) to tell the disk ;system which files to load. The file ID's number is searched for in the ;string. if an exact match is found, [$09] is 0'd, and [$0E] is incremented. ;if no matches are found after 20 bytes, or a -1 entry is encountered, [$09] ;is set to -1. if the first byte in the string is -1, the BootID number is ;used for matching files (any FileID that is not greater than the BootID ;qualifies as a match). ;logic: ;if String = -1 then ; if FileID <= BootID then ; [$09]:=$00 ; Inc([$0E]) ;else ; I:=0 ; while (String[I]<>FileID) or (String[I]<>-1) or (I<20) do Inc(I) ; if String[I] = FileID then ; [$09]:=$00 ; Inc([$0E]) ; else ; [$09]:=$FF; FileMatchTest: JSR XferByte; file sequence # $E4A3 JSR XferByte; file ID # (gets loaded into X) $E4A6 LDA #$08; set IRQ mode to skip next 8 bytes $E4A8 STA $0101 $E4AB CLI $E4AC LDY #$00 $E4AE LDA ($02),Y $E4B0 CMP #$ff; if Ptr($02) = -1 then test boot ID code $E4B2 BEQ $E4C8 $E4B4 TXA; file ID # $E4B5 CMP ($02),Y $E4B7 BEQ $E4CE $E4B9 INY $E4BA CPY #$14 $E4BC BEQ $E4C4 $E4BE LDA ($02),Y $E4C0 CMP #$ff $E4C2 BNE $E4B4 $E4C4 LDA #$ff $E4C6 BNE $E4D2 $E4C8 CPX $08; compare boot read file code to current $E4CA BEQ $E4CE $E4CC BCS $E4D2; branch if above (or equal, but isn't possible) $E4CE LDA #$00 $E4D0 INC $0E $E4D2 STA $09 $E4D4 LDA $0101 $E4D7 BNE $E4D4; wait until all 8 bytes have been read $E4D9 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;skip filesغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine uses the value stored in [$06] to determine how many files to ;dummy-read (skip over) from the current file position. SkipFiles: LDA $06 $E4DC STA $08 $E4DE BEQ $E4F8; branch if file count = 0 $E4E0 LDA #$03 $E4E2 JSR CheckBlkType $E4E5 LDY #$0a; skip 10 bytes $E4E7 JSR XferByte $E4EA DEY $E4EB BNE $E4E7 $E4ED LDA #$ff $E4EF STA $09 $E4F1 JSR LoadData; dummy read file data $E4F4 DEC $08 $E4F6 BNE $E4E0 $E4F8 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;load file off disk into memoryغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;loads data from current file off disk into a destination address specified ;by the file's header information stored on disk. ;params ;------ ;[$09]: dummy read only (if not zero) LoadData: LDY #$00 $E4FB JSR Xfer1stByte $E4FE STA $000A,Y $E501 INY $E502 CPY #$04 $E504 BNE $E4FB ;Ptr($0A): destination address ;Ptr($0C): byte xfer count RdData: JSR DecPtr0C $E509 JSR XferByte; get kind of file $E50C PHA $E50D JSR EndOfBlkRead $E510 LDA #$04 $E512 JSR CheckBlkType $E515 LDY $09 $E517 PLA $E518 BNE $E549; copy to VRAM if not zero $E51A CLC $E51B LDA $0A $E51D ADC $0C $E51F LDA $0B $E521 ADC $0D $E523 BCS $E531; branch if (DestAddr+XferCnt)<10000h ;if DestAddr < 0200h then do dummy copying $E525 LDA $0B $E527 CMP #$20 $E529 BCS $E533; branch if DestAddr >= 2000h $E52B AND #$07 $E52D CMP #$02 $E52F BCS $E533; branch if DestAddr >= 0200h $E531 LDY #$ff $E533 JSR XferByte $E536 CPY #$00 $E538 BNE $E542 $E53A STA ($0A),Y $E53C INC $0A $E53E BNE $E542 $E540 INC $0B $E542 JSR DecPtr0C $E545 BCS $E533 $E547 BCC $E572 ;VRAM data copy $E549 CPY #$00 $E54B BNE $E563 $E54D LDA $FE $E54F AND #$e7 $E551 STA $FE $E553 STA $2001; [NES] PPU setup #2 $E556 LDA $2002; [NES] PPU status $E559 LDA $0B $E55B STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E55E LDA $0A $E560 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E563 JSR XferByte $E566 CPY #$00 $E568 BNE $E56D $E56A STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $E56D JSR DecPtr0C $E570 BCS $E563 $E572 LDA $09 $E574 BNE $E57A $E576 JSR EndOfBlkRead $E579 RTS $E57A JSR XferByte $E57D JSR XferByte $E580 JMP ChkDiskSet ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;load size & source address operands into $0A..$0Dغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine is used only for when writing/verifying file data on disk. it ;uses the data string at Ptr($02) to load size and source address operands ;into Ptr($0C) and Ptr($0A), respectfully. It also checks if the source ;address is from video memory, and programs the PPU address register if so. ;load size of file via string offset $0B into Word($0C) LoadSiz&Src: LDY #$0b $E585 LDA ($02),Y; file size LO $E587 STA $0C $E589 INY $E58A LDA ($02),Y; file size HI $E58C STA $0D ;load source address via string offset $0E into Ptr($0A) $E58E LDY #$0e $E590 LDA ($02),Y; source address LO $E592 STA $0A $E594 INY $E595 LDA ($02),Y; source address HI $E597 STA $0B ;load source type byte (anything other than 0 means use PPU memory) $E599 INY $E59A LDA ($02),Y $E59C BEQ $E5B1 ;program PPU address registers with source address $E59E JSR DisPfOBJ $E5A1 LDA $2002; reset flip-flop $E5A4 LDA $0B $E5A6 STA $2006; store HI address $E5A9 LDA $0A $E5AB STA $2006; store LO address $E5AE LDA $2007; discard first read $E5B1 JSR DecPtr0C; adjust transfer count for range (0..n-1) $E5B4 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;save data in memory to file on diskغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine does 2 things, which involve working with file data. if called ;with A set to 0, file data is written to disk from memory. if called with ;A <> 0, file data on disk is verified (compared to data in memory). Ptr($02) ;contains the address to a 17-byte structure described below. Note that the ;disk transfer direction bit ($4025.2) must be set in sync with A, since this ;routine will not modify it automatically. ;00 1 ID ;01 8 Name ;09 2 load address ;0B 2 Size ;0D 1 type (0 = CPU data) ;0E 2 source address of file data (NOT written to disk) ;10 1 source address type (0 = CPU; NOT written to disk) ;11 ;the first 14 bytes of the structure are used directly as the file header ;data. the file sequence # part of the file header is specified seperately ;(in [$06]). Data at offset 0E and on is not used as file header data. ;offset 0E of the structure specifies the address in memory which the actual ;file data resides. offset 10 specifies the source memory type (0 = CPU; ;other = PPU). ;entry point SaveData: STA $09; value of A is stored in [$09] $E5B7 LDA $06; load current file # $E5B9 JSR XferByte; write out file sequence # (from [$06]) $E5BC LDX $09 $E5BE BEQ $E5C7; [$09] should be set to jump when writing $E5C0 LDX #$26; error # $E5C2 CMP $06; cmp. recorded sequence # to what it should be $E5C4 JSR XferFailOnNEQ ;loop to write/check entire file header block (minus the file sequence #) $E5C7 LDY #$00 $E5C9 LDA ($02),Y; load header byte $E5CB JSR XferByte; write it out (or read it in) $E5CE LDX $09 $E5D0 BEQ $E5D9; jump around check if writing data to disk $E5D2 LDX #$26; error # $E5D4 CMP ($02),Y; cmp. recorded header byte to what it should be $E5D6 JSR XferFailOnNEQ $E5D9 INY; advance pointer position $E5DA CPY #$0e; loop is finished if 14 bytes have been checked $E5DC BNE $E5C9 ;set up next block for reading $E5DE LDX $09 $E5E0 BEQ $E616; branch if writing instead $E5E2 JSR EndOfBlkRead $E5E5 JSR LoadSiz&Src;sets up Ptr($0A) & Ptr($0C) $E5E8 LDA #$04 $E5EA JSR CheckBlkType ;check source type and read/verify status $E5ED LDY #$10 $E5EF LDA ($02),Y; check data source type bit $E5F1 BNE $E624; branch if NOT in CPU memory map (PPU instead) $E5F3 LDY #$00 $E5F5 LDX $09; check if reading or writing $E5F7 BEQ $E60A; branch if writing ;check data on disk $E5F9 JSR XferByte $E5FC LDX #$26 $E5FE CMP ($0A),Y $E600 JSR XferFailOnNEQ $E603 JSR inc0Adec0C $E606 BCS $E5F9 $E608 BCC $E638 ;write data to disk $E60A LDA ($0A),Y $E60C JSR XferByte $E60F JSR inc0Adec0C $E612 BCS $E60A $E614 BCC $E638 ;set up next block for writing $E616 JSR EndOfBlkWrite $E619 JSR LoadSiz&Src;sets up Ptr($0A) & Ptr($0C) $E61C LDA #$04 $E61E JSR WriteBlkType $E621 JMP $E5ED ;verify data on disk with VRAM $E624 LDX $09 $E626 BEQ $E640 $E628 JSR XferByte $E62B LDX #$26; error # $E62D CMP $2007 $E630 JSR XferFailOnNEQ $E633 JSR DecPtr0C $E636 BCS $E624 ;end block reading $E638 LDX $09 $E63A BEQ $E649; branch if writing instead $E63C JSR EndOfBlkRead $E63F RTS ;write data from VRAM to disk $E640 LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $E643 JSR XferByte $E646 JMP $E633 ;end block writing $E649 JSR EndOfBlkWrite $E64C RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;waits until drive is ready (i.e., the disk head is at the start of the disk) WaitForRdy: JSR StopMotor $E650 LDY #$00 $E652 JSR MilSecTimer;0.256 sec delay $E655 JSR MilSecTimer;0.256 sec delay $E658 JSR StartMotor $E65B LDY #$96 $E65D JSR MilSecTimer;0.150 sec delay $E660 LDA $F9 $E662 ORA #$80; enable battery checking $E664 STA $F9 $E666 STA $4026 $E669 LDX #$02; battery error $E66B EOR $4033 $E66E ROL A $E66F JSR XferFailOnCy $E672 JSR StopMotor $E675 JSR StartMotor $E678 LDX #$01; disk set error $E67A LDA $4032 $E67D LSR A; check disk set bit $E67E JSR XferFailOnCy $E681 LSR A; check ready bit $E682 BCS $E678; wait for drive to become ready $E684 RTS ;stop disk drive motor StopMotor: LDA $FA $E687 AND #$08 $E689 ORA #$26 $E68B STA $4025 $E68E RTS ;verifies that first byte in file is equal to value in accumulator CheckBlkType: LDY #$05 $E691 JSR MilSecTimer;0.005 sec delay $E694 STA $07 $E696 CLC $E697 ADC #$21; error # = 21h + failed block type (1..4) $E699 TAY $E69A LDA $FA $E69C ORA #$40 $E69E STA $FA $E6A0 STA $4025 $E6A3 JSR Xfer1stByte $E6A6 PHA $E6A7 TYA $E6A8 TAX $E6A9 PLA $E6AA CMP $07 $E6AC JSR XferFailOnNEQ $E6AF RTS ;writes out block start mark, plus byte in accumulator WriteBlkType: LDY #$0a $E6B2 STA $07 $E6B4 LDA $FA $E6B6 AND #$2b; set xfer direction to write $E6B8 STA $4025 $E6BB JSR MilSecTimer;0.010 sec delay $E6BE LDY #$00 $E6C0 STY $4024; zero out write register $E6C3 ORA #$40; tell FDS to write data to disk NOW $E6C5 STA $FA $E6C7 STA $4025 $E6CA LDA #$80 $E6CC JSR Xfer1stByte;write out block start mark $E6CF LDA $07 $E6D1 JSR XferByte; write out block type $E6D4 RTS ;FDS string FDSstr DB '*CVH-ODNETNIN*' ;starts transfer StartXfer: JSR WaitForRdy $E6E6 LDY #$c5 $E6E8 JSR MilSecTimer;0.197 sec delay $E6EB LDY #$46 $E6ED JSR MilSecTimer;0.070 sec delay $E6F0 LDA #$01 $E6F2 JSR CheckBlkType $E6F5 LDY #$0d $E6F7 JSR XferByte $E6FA LDX #$21; error 21h if FDS string failed comparison $E6FC CMP FDSstr,Y $E6FF JSR XferFailOnNEQ $E702 DEY $E703 BPL $E6F7 $E705 RTS ;checks the CRC OK bit at the end of a block EndOfBlkRead: JSR XferByte; first CRC byte $E709 LDX #$28; premature file end error # $E70B LDA $4030 $E70E AND #$40; check "end of disk" status $E710 BNE XferFail $E712 LDA $FA $E714 ORA #$10; set while processing block end mark (CRC) $E716 STA $FA $E718 STA $4025 $E71B JSR XferByte; second CRC byte $E71E LDX #$27; CRC fail error # $E720 LDA $4030 $E723 AND #$10; test CRC bit $E725 BNE XferFail $E727 BEQ ChkDiskSet ;takes care of writing CRC value out to block being written EndOfBlkWrite: JSR XferByte $E72C LDX #$29 $E72E LDA $4030 $E731 AND #$40 $E733 BNE XferFail $E735 LDA $FA $E737 ORA #$10; causes FDS to write out CRC immediately $E739 STA $FA; following completion of pending byte write $E73B STA $4025 $E73E LDX #$b2; 0.0005 second delay (to allow adaptor pleanty $E740 DEX; of time to write out entire CRC) $E741 BNE $E740 $E743 LDX #$30 $E745 LDA $4032 $E748 AND #$02 $E74A BNE XferFail ;disables disk transfer interrupts & checks disk set status ChkDiskSet: LDA $FA $E74E AND #$2f $E750 ORA #$04 $E752 STA $FA $E754 STA $4025 $E757 LDX #$01; disk set error # $E759 LDA $4032 $E75C LSR A $E75D JSR XferFailOnCy $E760 RTS ;reads in CRC value at end of block into Ptr($0A)+Y. Note that this ;subroutine is not used by any other disk routines. ReadCRC: JSR XferByte $E764 STA ($0A),Y $E766 LDX #$28 $E768 LDA $4030 $E76B AND #$40 $E76D BNE XferFail $E76F INY $E770 JSR XferByte $E773 STA ($0A),Y $E775 JMP ChkDiskSet ;dispatched when transfer is to be terminated. returns error # in A. XferDone: LDX #$00; no error $E77A BEQ $E786 XferFailOnCy: BCS XferFail $E77E RTS XferFailOnNEQ: BEQ $E77E XferFail: TXA $E782 LDX $04 $E784 TXS; restore PC to original caller's address $E785 TAX $E786 LDA $FA $E788 AND #$09 $E78A ORA #$26 $E78C STA $FA $E78E STA $4025 $E791 TXA $E792 CLI $E793 RTS ;the main interface for data exchanges between the disk drive & the system. Xfer1stByte: LDX #$40 $E796 STX $0101 $E799 ROL $FA $E79B SEC $E79C ROR $FA $E79E LDX $FA $E7A0 STX $4025 XferByte: CLI $E7A4 JMP $E7A4 ;routine for incrementing 16-bit pointers in the zero-page inc0Adec0C: INC $0A $E7A9 BNE DecPtr0C $E7AB INC $0B DecPtr0C: SEC $E7AE LDA $0C $E7B0 SBC #$01 $E7B2 STA $0C $E7B4 LDA $0D $E7B6 SBC #$00 $E7B8 STA $0D $E7BA RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;PPU data processorغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine treats a string of bytes as custom instructions. These strings ;are stored in a mannar similar to regular CPU instructions, in that the ;instructions are stored & processed sequentially, and instruction length is ;dynamic. The instructions haved been designed to allow easy filling/copying ;of data to random places in the PPU memory map. Full random access to PPU ;memory is supported, and it is even possible to call subroutines. All data ;written to PPU memory is stored in the actual instructions (up to 64 ;sequential bytes of data can be stored in 1 instruction). ;the 16-bit immediate which follows the 'JSR PPUdataPrsr' opcode is a pointer ;to the first PPU data string to be processed. ;the PPU data processor's opcodes are layed out as follows. ;+---------------+ ;|special opcodes| ;+---------------+ ; $4C: call subroutine. 16-bit call address follows. This opcode is ; the equivelant of a 'JMP $xxxx' 6502 mnemonic. ; $60: end subroutine. returns to the instruction after the call. ; This opcode is the equivelant of a 'RTS' 6502 mnemonic. ; $80..$FF: end program. processing will not stop until this opcode is ; encountered. ;+---------------------------------+ ;|move/fill data instruction format| ;+---------------------------------+ ; byte 0 ; ------ ; high byte of destination PPU address. cannot be equal to $60, $4C or ; greater than $7F. ; byte 1 ; ------ ; low byte of destination PPU address. ; byte 2 bit description ; ---------------------- ; 7: increment PPU address by 1/32 (0/1) ; 6: copy/fill data to PPU mem (0/1) ; 5-0: byte xfer count (0 indicates 64 bytes) ; bytes 3..n ; ---------- ; - if the fill bit is set, there is only one byte here, which is the value ; to fill the PPU memory with, for the specified byte xfer count. ; - if copy mode is set instead, this data contains the bytes to be copied ; to PPU memory. The number of bytes appearing here is equal to the byte ; xfer count. ;entry point PPUdataPrsr: JSR GetHCparam $E7BE JMP $E815 ;[Param] is in A $E7C1 PHA; save [Param] $E7C2 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E7C5 INY $E7C6 LDA ($00),Y; load [Param+1] $E7C8 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E7CB INY $E7CC LDA ($00),Y; load [Param+2] IFcccccc $E7CE ASL A; bit 7 in carry Fcccccc0 $E7CF PHA; save [Param+2] ;if Bit(7,[Param+2]) then PPUinc:=32 else PPUinc:=1 $E7D0 LDA $FF $E7D2 ORA #$04 $E7D4 BCS $E7D8 $E7D6 AND #$fb $E7D8 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $E7DB STA $FF ;if Bit(6,[Param+2]) then $E7DD PLA; load [Param+2] Fcccccc0 $E7DE ASL A $E7DF PHP; save zero status $E7E0 BCC $E7E5 $E7E2 ORA #$02 $E7E4 INY; advance to next byte if fill bit set ;if Zero([Param+2] and $3F) then carry:=1 else carry:=0 $E7E5 PLP $E7E6 CLC $E7E7 BNE $E7EA $E7E9 SEC $E7EA ROR A $E7EB LSR A $E7EC TAX ;for I:=0 to X-1 do [$2007]:=[Param+3+(X and not Bit(6,[Param+2]))] $E7ED BCS $E7F0 $E7EF INY $E7F0 LDA ($00),Y $E7F2 STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $E7F5 DEX $E7F6 BNE $E7ED ;not sure what this is supposed to do, since it looks like it's zeroing out ;the entire PPU address register in the end $E7F8 PLA; load [Param] $E7F9 CMP #$3f $E7FB BNE $E809 $E7FD STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E800 STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E803 STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E806 STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select ;increment Param by Y+1 $E809 SEC $E80A TYA $E80B ADC $00 $E80D STA $00 $E80F LDA #$00 $E811 ADC $01 $E813 STA $01 ;exit if bit(7,[Param]) is 1 $E815 LDX $2002; [NES] PPU status $E818 LDY #$00 $E81A LDA ($00),Y; load opcode $E81C BPL $E81F $E81E RTS ;test for RET instruction $E81F CMP #$60 $E821 BNE $E82D ;[Param] = $60: ;pop Param off stack $E823 PLA $E824 STA $01 $E826 PLA $E827 STA $00 $E829 LDY #$02; increment amount $E82B BNE $E809; unconditional ;test for JSR opcode $E82D CMP #$4c $E82F BNE $E7C1 ;[Param] = $4C ;push Param onto stack $E831 LDA $00 $E833 PHA $E834 LDA $01 $E836 PHA ;Param = [Param+1] $E837 INY $E838 LDA ($00),Y $E83A TAX $E83B INY $E83C LDA ($00),Y $E83E STA $01 $E840 STX $00 $E842 BCS $E815; unconditional ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;fetches hardcoded 16-bit value after second return address into [$00] & [$01] ;that return address is then incremented by 2. GetHCparam: TSX $E845 LDA $0103,X $E848 STA $05 $E84A LDA $0104,X $E84D STA $06 $E84F LDY #$01 $E851 LDA ($05),Y $E853 STA $00 $E855 INY $E856 LDA ($05),Y $E858 STA $01 $E85A CLC $E85B LDA #$02 $E85D ADC $05 $E85F STA $0103,X $E862 LDA #$00 $E864 ADC $06 $E866 STA $0104,X $E869 RTS $E86A LDA $FF $E86C AND #$fb $E86E STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $E871 STA $FF $E873 LDX $2002; [NES] PPU status $E876 LDY #$00 $E878 BEQ $E8A5 $E87A PHA $E87B STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E87E INY $E87F LDA $0302,Y $E882 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E885 INY $E886 LDX $0302,Y $E889 INY $E88A LDA $0302,Y $E88D STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $E890 DEX $E891 BNE $E889 $E893 PLA $E894 CMP #$3f $E896 BNE $E8A4 $E898 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E89B STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E89E STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E8A1 STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E8A4 INY $E8A5 LDA $0302,Y $E8A8 BPL $E87A $E8AA STA $0302 $E8AD LDA #$00 $E8AF STA $0301 $E8B2 RTS $E8B3 LDA $2002; [NES] PPU status $E8B6 LDA $0300,X $E8B9 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E8BC INX $E8BD LDA $0300,X $E8C0 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $E8C3 INX $E8C4 LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $E8C7 LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $E8CA STA $0300,X $E8CD INX $E8CE DEY $E8CF BNE $E8B6 $E8D1 RTS $E8D2 STA $03 $E8D4 STX $02 $E8D6 STY $04 $E8D8 JSR GetHCparam $E8DB LDY #$ff $E8DD LDA #$01 $E8DF BNE $E8F6 $E8E1 STA $03 $E8E3 STX $02 $E8E5 JSR GetHCparam $E8E8 LDY #$00 $E8EA LDA ($00),Y $E8EC AND #$0f $E8EE STA $04 $E8F0 LDA ($00),Y $E8F2 LSR A $E8F3 LSR A $E8F4 LSR A $E8F5 LSR A $E8F6 STA $05 $E8F8 LDX $0301 $E8FB LDA $03 $E8FD STA $0302,X $E900 JSR $E93C $E903 LDA $02 $E905 STA $0302,X $E908 JSR $E93C $E90B LDA $04 $E90D STA $06 $E90F STA $0302,X $E912 JSR $E93C $E915 INY $E916 LDA ($00),Y $E918 STA $0302,X $E91B DEC $06 $E91D BNE $E912 $E91F JSR $E93C $E922 STX $0301 $E925 CLC $E926 LDA #$20 $E928 ADC $02 $E92A STA $02 $E92C LDA #$00 $E92E ADC $03 $E930 STA $03 $E932 DEC $05 $E934 BNE $E8FB $E936 LDA #$ff $E938 STA $0302,X $E93B RTS $E93C INX $E93D CPX $0300 $E940 BCC $E94E $E942 LDX $0301 $E945 LDA #$ff $E947 STA $0302,X $E94A PLA $E94B PLA $E94C LDA #$01 $E94E RTS $E94F DEX $E950 DEX $E951 DEX $E952 TXA $E953 CLC $E954 ADC #$03 $E956 DEY $E957 BNE $E953 $E959 TAX $E95A TAY $E95B LDA $0300,X $E95E CMP $00 $E960 BNE $E970 $E962 INX $E963 LDA $0300,X $E966 CMP $01 $E968 BNE $E970 $E96A INX $E96B LDA $0300,X $E96E CLC $E96F RTS $E970 LDA $00 $E972 STA $0300,Y $E975 INY $E976 LDA $01 $E978 STA $0300,Y $E97B SEC $E97C RTS $E97D LDA #$08 $E97F STA $00 $E981 LDA $02 $E983 ASL A $E984 ROL $00 $E986 ASL A $E987 ROL $00 $E989 AND #$e0 $E98B STA $01 $E98D LDA $03 $E98F LSR A $E990 LSR A $E991 LSR A $E992 ORA $01 $E994 STA $01 $E996 RTS $E997 LDA $01 $E999 ASL A $E99A ASL A $E99B ASL A $E99C STA $03 $E99E LDA $01 $E9A0 STA $02 $E9A2 LDA $00 $E9A4 LSR A $E9A5 ROR $02 $E9A7 LSR A $E9A8 ROR $02 $E9AA LDA #$f8 $E9AC AND $02 $E9AE STA $02 $E9B0 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;Random number generatorغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;uses a shift register and a XOR to generate pseudo-random numbers. ;algorithm ;--------- ;carry [X] [X+1] [X+n] ;--> ---> ---> ---> ---> ---> ---> ;C 765432*0 765432*0 76543210 ... ;notes ;----- ;* these 2 points are XORed, and the result is stored in C. ;- when the shift occurs, C is shifted into the MSB of [X], the LSB of [X] is ; shifted into the MSB of [X+1], and so on, for as many more numbers there ; are (# of bytes to use is indicated by Y). ;- at least 2 8-bit shift registers need to be used here, but using more will ; not effect the random number generation. Also, after 16 shifts, the ; 16-bit results in the first 2 bytes will be the same as the next 2, so ; it's really not neccessary to use more than 2 bytes for this algorithm. ;- a new random number is available after each successive call to this ; subroutine, but to get a good random number to start off with, it may be ; neccessary to call this routine several times. ;- upon the first time calling this routine, make sure the first 2 bytes ; do not both contain 0, otherwise the random number algorithm won't work. ;Y is number of 8-bit registers to use (usually 2) ;X is base 0pg addr for shifting ;store first bit sample RndmNbrGen: LDA $00,X $E9B3 AND #$02 $E9B5 STA $00 ;xor second bit sample with first $E9B7 LDA $01,X $E9B9 AND #$02 $E9BB EOR $00 ;set carry to result of XOR $E9BD CLC $E9BE BEQ $E9C1 $E9C0 SEC ;multi-precision shift for Y amount of bytes $E9C1 ROR $00,X $E9C3 INX $E9C4 DEY $E9C5 BNE $E9C1 $E9C7 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $E9C8 LDA #$00 $E9CA STA $2003; [NES] SPR-RAM address select $E9CD LDA #$02 $E9CF STA $4014; [NES] Sprite DMA trigger $E9D2 RTS $E9D3 STX $00 $E9D5 DEC $00,X $E9D7 BPL $E9DE $E9D9 LDA #$09 $E9DB STA $00,X $E9DD TYA $E9DE TAX $E9DF LDA $00,X $E9E1 BEQ $E9E5 $E9E3 DEC $00,X $E9E5 DEX $E9E6 CPX $00 $E9E8 BNE $E9DF $E9EA RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;controller read function ;- strobes controllers ;- [$F5] contains 8 reads of bit 0 from [$4016] ;- [$00] contains 8 reads of bit 1 from [$4016] ;- [$F6] contains 8 reads of bit 0 from [$4017] ;- [$01] contains 8 reads of bit 1 from [$4017] ReadCtrlrs: LDX $FB $E9ED INX $E9EE STX $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $E9F1 DEX $E9F2 STX $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $E9F5 LDX #$08 $E9F7 LDA $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $E9FA LSR A $E9FB ROL $F5 $E9FD LSR A $E9FE ROL $00 $EA00 LDA $4017; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #2 $EA03 LSR A $EA04 ROL $F6 $EA06 LSR A $EA07 ROL $01 $EA09 DEX $EA0A BNE $E9F7 $EA0C RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;controller OR function ;[$F5]|=[$00] ;[$F6]|=[$01] ORctrlrRead: LDA $00 $EA0F ORA $F5 $EA11 STA $F5 $EA13 LDA $01 $EA15 ORA $F6 $EA17 STA $F6 $EA19 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;get controller status ;- returns status of controller buttons in [$F7] (CI) and [$F8] (CII) ;- returns which new buttons have been pressed since last update in ; [$F5] (CI) and [$F6] (CII) GetCtrlrSts: JSR ReadCtrlrs $EA1D BEQ $EA25; always branches because ReadCtrlrs sets zero flag $EA1F JSR ReadCtrlrs; this instruction is not used $EA22 JSR ORctrlrRead;this instruction is not used $EA25 LDX #$01 $EA27 LDA $F5,X $EA29 TAY $EA2A EOR $F7,X $EA2C AND $F5,X $EA2E STA $F5,X $EA30 STY $F7,X $EA32 DEX $EA33 BPL $EA27 $EA35 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $EA36 JSR ReadCtrlrs $EA39 LDY $F5 $EA3B LDA $F6 $EA3D PHA $EA3E JSR ReadCtrlrs $EA41 PLA $EA42 CMP $F6 $EA44 BNE $EA39 $EA46 CPY $F5 $EA48 BNE $EA39 $EA4A BEQ $EA25 $EA4C JSR ReadCtrlrs $EA4F JSR ORctrlrRead $EA52 LDY $F5 $EA54 LDA $F6 $EA56 PHA $EA57 JSR ReadCtrlrs $EA5A JSR ORctrlrRead $EA5D PLA $EA5E CMP $F6 $EA60 BNE $EA52 $EA62 CPY $F5 $EA64 BNE $EA52 $EA66 BEQ $EA25 $EA68 JSR ReadCtrlrs $EA6B LDA $00 $EA6D STA $F7 $EA6F LDA $01 $EA71 STA $F8 $EA73 LDX #$03 $EA75 LDA $F5,X $EA77 TAY $EA78 EOR $F1,X $EA7A AND $F5,X $EA7C STA $F5,X $EA7E STY $F1,X $EA80 DEX $EA81 BPL $EA75 $EA83 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;VRAM fill routineغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine basically fills a specified place in VRAM with a desired value. ;when writing to name table memory, another value can be specified to fill the ;attribute table with. parameters are as follows: ;A is HI VRAM addr (LO VRAM addr is always 0) ;X is fill value ;Y is iteration count (256 written bytes per iteration). if A is $20 or ; greater (indicating name table VRAM), iteration count is always 4, ; and this data is used for attribute fill data. VRAMfill: STA $00 $EA86 STX $01 $EA88 STY $02 ;reset 2006's flip flop $EA8A LDA $2002; [NES] PPU status ;set PPU address increment to 1 $EA8D LDA $FF $EA8F AND #$fb $EA91 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $EA94 STA $FF ;PPUaddrHI:=[$00] ;PPUaddrLO:=$00 $EA96 LDA $00 $EA98 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $EA9B LDY #$00 $EA9D STY $2006; [NES] VRAM address select ;if PPUaddr<$2000 then X:=[$02] else X:=4 $EAA0 LDX #$04 $EAA2 CMP #$20 $EAA4 BCS $EAA8; branch if more than or equal to $20 $EAA6 LDX $02 ;for i:=X downto 1 do Fill([$2007],A,256) $EAA8 LDY #$00 $EAAA LDA $01 $EAAC STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EAAF DEY $EAB0 BNE $EAAC $EAB2 DEX $EAB3 BNE $EAAC ;set up Y for next loop $EAB5 LDY $02 ;if PPUaddr>=$2000 then $EAB7 LDA $00 $EAB9 CMP #$20 $EABB BCC $EACF; branch if less than $20 ; PPUaddrHI:=[$00]+3 ; PPUaddrLO:=$C0 $EABD ADC #$02 $EABF STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $EAC2 LDA #$c0 $EAC4 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select ; for I:=1 to $40 do [$2007]:=[$02] $EAC7 LDX #$40 $EAC9 STY $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EACC DEX $EACD BNE $EAC9 ;restore X $EACF LDX $01 $EAD1 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;CPU memory fill routineغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this routine simply fills CPU mapped memory with a given value. granularity ;is pages (256 bytes). parameters are as follows: ;A is fill value ;X is first page # ;Y is last page # MemFill: PHA $EAD3 TXA $EAD4 STY $01 $EAD6 CLC $EAD7 SBC $01 $EAD9 TAX $EADA PLA $EADB LDY #$00 $EADD STY $00 $EADF STA ($00),Y $EAE1 DEY $EAE2 BNE $EADF $EAE4 DEC $01 $EAE6 INX $EAE7 BNE $EADF $EAE9 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;restore PPU reg's 0 & 5 from mem RstPPU05: LDA $2002; reset scroll register flip-flop $EAED LDA $FD $EAEF STA $2005; [NES] PPU scroll $EAF2 LDA $FC $EAF4 STA $2005; [NES] PPU scroll $EAF7 LDA $FF $EAF9 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $EAFC RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $EAFD ASL A $EAFE TAY $EAFF INY $EB00 PLA $EB01 STA $00 $EB03 PLA $EB04 STA $01 $EB06 LDA ($00),Y $EB08 TAX $EB09 INY $EB0A LDA ($00),Y $EB0C STA $01 $EB0E STX $00 $EB10 JMP ($0000) $EB13 LDA $FB $EB15 AND #$f8 $EB17 STA $FB $EB19 ORA #$05 $EB1B STA $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $EB1E NOP $EB1F NOP $EB20 NOP $EB21 NOP $EB22 NOP $EB23 NOP $EB24 LDX #$08 $EB26 LDA $FB $EB28 ORA #$04 $EB2A STA $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $EB2D LDY #$0a $EB2F DEY $EB30 BNE $EB2F $EB32 NOP $EB33 LDY $FB $EB35 LDA $4017; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #2 $EB38 LSR A $EB39 AND #$0f $EB3B BEQ $EB62 $EB3D STA $00,X $EB3F LDA $FB $EB41 ORA #$06 $EB43 STA $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $EB46 LDY #$0a $EB48 DEY $EB49 BNE $EB48 $EB4B NOP $EB4C NOP $EB4D LDA $4017; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #2 $EB50 ROL A $EB51 ROL A $EB52 ROL A $EB53 AND #$f0 $EB55 ORA $00,X $EB57 EOR #$ff $EB59 STA $00,X $EB5B DEX $EB5C BPL $EB26 $EB5E LDY $FB $EB60 ORA #$ff $EB62 STY $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $EB65 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;CPU to PPU copy routineغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;CPUtoPPUcpy is used for making data transfers between the PPU & CPU. ;arguments are passed in CPU registers, and also hardcoded as an immediate ;value after the call instruction. ;parameters ;---------- ;[RETaddr+1] is CPU xfer address (the 2 bytes immediately after the JSR inst.) ;X reg: # of 16-byte units to xfer to/from PPU ;Y reg: bits 8-15 of PPU xfer addr ;A reg: bottom part of PPU xfer addr, and xfer control. the bit layout ; is as follows: ; 0: invert data/fill type ; 1: xfer direction (0 = write to video mem) ; 2-3: xfer mode. note that on each iteration, 2 groups of 8 bytes ; are always xfered in/out of the PPU, but depending on the ; mode, 8 or 16 bytes will be xfered to/from CPU. The following ; chart describes how xfers to/from the PPU via the CPU are ; made. ; 1st 8 bytes 2nd 8 bytes ; ----------- ----------- ; 0: CPU CPU+8 ; 1: CPU fill bit ; 2: fill bit CPU ; 3: CPU ^ inv.bit CPU ; 4-7: bits 4-7 of PPU xfer addr. bits 0-3 are assumed 0. ;increment word at [$00] by 8. ;decrement byte at [$02]. Inc00by8: LDA #$08 Inc00byA: PHP $EB69 LDY #$00 $EB6B CLC $EB6C ADC $00 $EB6E STA $00 $EB70 LDA #$00 $EB72 ADC $01 $EB74 STA $01 $EB76 PLP $EB77 DEC $02 $EB79 RTS ;move 8 bytes pointed to by word[$00] to video buf. ;move direction is reversed if carry is set. Mov8BVid: LDX #$08 $EB7C BCS $EB88 $EB7E LDA ($00),Y $EB80 STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EB83 INY $EB84 DEX $EB85 BNE $EB7C $EB87 RTS $EB88 LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EB8B STA ($00),Y $EB8D BCS $EB83 ;move the byte at [$03] to the video buffer 8 times. ;if carry is set, then make dummy reads. FillVidW8B: LDA $03 $EB91 LDX #$08 $EB93 BCS $EB9C $EB95 STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EB98 DEX $EB99 BNE $EB93 $EB9B RTS $EB9C LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EB9F BCS $EB98 ;move 8 bytes pointed to by word[$00] to video buf. ;data is XORed with [$03] before being moved. Mov8BtoVid: LDX #$08 $EBA3 LDA $03 $EBA5 EOR ($00),Y $EBA7 STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $EBAA INY $EBAB DEX $EBAC BNE $EBA3 $EBAE RTS ;load register variables into temporary memory CPUtoPPUcpy: STA $04 $EBB1 STX $02 $EBB3 STY $03 $EBB5 JSR GetHCparam; load hard-coded param into [$00]&[$01] ;set PPU address increment to 1 $EBB8 LDA $2002; [NES] PPU status $EBBB LDA $FF $EBBD AND #$fb $EBBF STA $FF $EBC1 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 ;PPUaddrHI:=[$03] ;PPUaddrLO:=[$04]and $F0 $EBC4 LDY $03 $EBC6 STY $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $EBC9 LDA $04 $EBCB AND #$f0 $EBCD STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select ;[$03]:=Bit(0,[$04]) 0 if clear; -1 if set $EBD0 LDA #$00 $EBD2 STA $03 $EBD4 LDA $04 $EBD6 AND #$0f $EBD8 LSR A $EBD9 BCC $EBDD $EBDB DEC $03 ;if Bit(1,[$04])then Temp:=[$2007] $EBDD LSR A $EBDE BCC $EBE3 $EBE0 LDX $2007; dummy read to validate internal read buffer ;case [$04]and $0C of $EBE3 TAY $EBE4 BEQ $EBFB; 00xx $EBE6 DEY $EBE7 BEQ $EC09; 01xx $EBE9 DEY $EBEA BEQ $EC15; 02xx $EBEC DEY; Y=0 ;$0C: #2 plane copy (plane 1 is filled with same data, but can be inverted) $EBED JSR Mov8BtoVid $EBF0 LDY #$00 $EBF2 JSR Mov8BVid $EBF5 JSR Inc00by8 $EBF8 BNE $EBED $EBFA RTS ;$00: double plane copy $EBFB JSR Mov8BVid $EBFE JSR Mov8BVid $EC01 LDA #$10 $EC03 JSR Inc00byA $EC06 BNE $EBFB $EC08 RTS ;$04: #1 plane copy (plane 2 is filled with [$03]) $EC09 JSR Mov8BVid $EC0C JSR FillVidW8B $EC0F JSR Inc00by8 $EC12 BNE $EC09 $EC14 RTS ;$08: #2 plane copy (plane 1 is filled with [$03]) $EC15 JSR FillVidW8B $EC18 JSR Mov8BVid $EC1B JSR Inc00by8 $EC1E BNE $EC15 $EC20 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $EC21 RTS $EC22 LDY #$0b $EC24 LDA ($00),Y $EC26 STA $02 $EC28 LDA #$02 $EC2A STA $03 $EC2C DEY $EC2D LDA ($00),Y $EC2F LSR A $EC30 LSR A $EC31 LSR A $EC32 LSR A $EC33 BEQ $EC21 $EC35 STA $04 $EC37 STA $0C $EC39 LDA ($00),Y $EC3B AND #$0f $EC3D BEQ $EC21 $EC3F STA $05 $EC41 LDY #$01 $EC43 LDA ($00),Y $EC45 TAX $EC46 DEY $EC47 LDA ($00),Y $EC49 BEQ $EC4F $EC4B BPL $EC21 $EC4D LDX #$f4 $EC4F STX $08 $EC51 LDY #$08 $EC53 LDA ($00),Y $EC55 LSR A $EC56 AND #$08 $EC58 BEQ $EC5C $EC5A LDA #$80 $EC5C ROR A $EC5D STA $09 $EC5F INY $EC60 LDA ($00),Y $EC62 AND #$23 $EC64 ORA $09 $EC66 STA $09 $EC68 LDY #$03 $EC6A LDA ($00),Y $EC6C STA $0A $EC6E LDA $05 $EC70 STA $07 $EC72 LDY #$00 $EC74 STY $0B $EC76 LDA $04 $EC78 STA $06 $EC7A LDX $08 $EC7C TXA $EC7D STA ($02),Y $EC7F CMP #$f4 $EC81 BEQ $EC87 $EC83 CLC $EC84 ADC #$08 $EC86 TAX $EC87 INY $EC88 INY $EC89 LDA $09 $EC8B STA ($02),Y $EC8D INY $EC8E LDA $0A $EC90 STA ($02),Y $EC92 INY $EC93 INC $0B $EC95 DEC $06 $EC97 BNE $EC7C $EC99 LDA $0A $EC9B CLC $EC9C ADC #$08 $EC9E STA $0A $ECA0 DEC $07 $ECA2 BNE $EC76 $ECA4 LDY #$07 $ECA6 LDA ($00),Y $ECA8 STA $07 $ECAA DEY $ECAB LDA ($00),Y $ECAD STA $08 $ECAF LDA #$00 $ECB1 STA $0A $ECB3 CLC $ECB4 LDX $0B $ECB6 DEY $ECB7 LDA ($00),Y $ECB9 CLC $ECBA ADC $07 $ECBC STA $07 $ECBE LDA #$00 $ECC0 ADC $08 $ECC2 STA $08 $ECC4 DEX $ECC5 BNE $ECB7 $ECC7 INC $02 $ECC9 LDY #$00 $ECCB LDA $08 $ECCD BNE $ECD3 $ECCF DEC $0A $ECD1 LDY $07 $ECD3 BIT $09 $ECD5 BMI $ECF5 $ECD7 BVS $ECF7 $ECD9 LDA ($07),Y $ECDB BIT $0A $ECDD BPL $ECE0 $ECDF TYA $ECE0 STA ($02,X) $ECE2 DEY $ECE3 BIT $09 $ECE5 BMI $ECE9 $ECE7 INY $ECE8 INY $ECE9 LDA #$04 $ECEB CLC $ECEC ADC $02 $ECEE STA $02 $ECF0 DEC $0B $ECF2 BNE $ECD9 $ECF4 RTS $ECF5 BVC $ED09 $ECF7 TYA $ECF8 CLC $ECF9 ADC $0B $ECFB TAY $ECFC DEY $ECFD BIT $09 $ECFF BMI $ECD9 $ED01 LDA #$ff $ED03 EOR $0C $ED05 STA $0C $ED07 INC $0C $ED09 TYA $ED0A CLC $ED0B ADC $0C $ED0D TAY $ED0E LDA $04 $ED10 STA $06 $ED12 DEY $ED13 BIT $09 $ED15 BMI $ED19 $ED17 INY $ED18 INY $ED19 LDA ($07),Y $ED1B BIT $0A $ED1D BPL $ED20 $ED1F TYA $ED20 STA ($02,X) $ED22 LDA #$04 $ED24 CLC $ED25 ADC $02 $ED27 STA $02 $ED29 DEC $06 $ED2B BNE $ED12 $ED2D TYA $ED2E CLC $ED2F ADC $0C $ED31 TAY $ED32 DEC $05 $ED34 BNE $ED09 $ED36 RTS 24242424242424242424241712171D0E 170D1824282424242424242424242424 242424242424240F0A16121522240C18 16191E1D0E1B241D1624242424242424 24242424242424242424242424242424 24242424242424242424242424242424 24241D11121C24191B180D1E0C1D2412 1C24160A171E0F0A0C1D1E1B0E0D2424 24240A170D241C18150D240B22241712 171D0E170D18240C1827151D0D262424 2424181B240B2224181D110E1B240C18 16190A1722241E170D0E1B2424242424 242415120C0E171C0E24180F24171217 1D0E170D18240C1827151D0D26262424 ;a disk-related subroutine, which somehow ended up all the way out here... StartMotor: ORA #$01 $EE19 STA $4025 $EE1C AND #$fd $EE1E STA $FA $EE20 STA $4025 $EE23 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;Reset vectorغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;disable interrupts (just in case resetting the CPU doesn't!) Reset: SEI ;set up PPU ctrl reg #1 $EE25 LDA #$10 $EE27 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $EE2A STA $FF ;clear decimal flag (in case this code is executed on a CPU with dec. mode) $EE2C CLD ;set up PPU ctrl reg #2 (disable playfield & objects) $EE2D LDA #$06 $EE2F STA $FE $EE31 STA $2001; [NES] PPU setup #2 ;wait at least 1 frame $EE34 LDX #$02; loop count = 2 iterations $EE36 LDA $2002; [NES] PPU status $EE39 BPL $EE36; branch if VBL has not been reached $EE3B DEX $EE3C BNE $EE36; exit loop when X = 0 $EE3E STX $4022; disable timer interrupt $EE41 STX $4023; disable sound & disk I/O $EE44 LDA #$83 $EE46 STA $4023; enable sound & disk I/O $EE49 STX $FD $EE4B STX $FC $EE4D STX $FB $EE4F STX $4016; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #1 $EE52 LDA #$2e $EE54 STA $FA $EE56 STA $4025 $EE59 LDA #$ff $EE5B STA $F9 $EE5D STA $4026 $EE60 STX $4010; [NES] Audio - DPCM control $EE63 LDA #$c0 $EE65 STA $4017; [NES] Joypad & I/O port for port #2 $EE68 LDA #$0f $EE6A STA $4015; [NES] IRQ status / Sound enable $EE6D LDA #$80 $EE6F STA $4080 $EE72 LDA #$e8 $EE74 STA $408A $EE77 LDX #$ff; set up stack $EE79 TXS $EE7A LDA #$c0 $EE7C STA $0100 $EE7F LDA #$80 $EE81 STA $0101 ;if ([$102]=$35)and(([$103]=$53)or([$103]=$AC)) then ; [$103]:=$53 ; CALL RstPPU05 ; CLI ; JMP [$DFFC] $EE84 LDA $0102 $EE87 CMP #$35 $EE89 BNE $EEA2 $EE8B LDA $0103 $EE8E CMP #$53 $EE90 BEQ $EE9B $EE92 CMP #$ac $EE94 BNE $EEA2 $EE96 LDA #$53 $EE98 STA $0103 $EE9B JSR RstPPU05 $EE9E CLI; enable interrupts $EE9F JMP ($DFFC) ;for I:=$F8 downto $01 do [I]:=$00 $EEA2 LDA #$00 $EEA4 LDX #$f8 $EEA6 STA $00,X $EEA8 DEX $EEA9 BNE $EEA6 ;[$300]:=$7D ;[$301]:=$00 ;[$302]:=$FF $EEAB STA $0301 $EEAE LDA #$7d $EEB0 STA $0300 $EEB3 LDA #$ff $EEB5 STA $0302 ;if Ctrlr1 = $30 then ; [$0102]:=0 ; JMP $F4CC $EEB8 JSR GetCtrlrSts $EEBB LDA $F7; read ctrlr 1 buttons $EEBD CMP #$30; test if only select & start pressed $EEBF BNE $EEC9 $EEC1 LDA #$00 $EEC3 STA $0102 $EEC6 JMP $F4CC $EEC9 JSR InitGfx $EECC JSR $F0FD $EECF LDA #$4a $EED1 STA $A1 $EED3 LDA #$30 $EED5 STA $B1 $EED7 LDA #$e4 $EED9 STA $83 $EEDB LDA #$a9 $EEDD STA $FC ;test if disk inserted $EEDF LDA $4032 $EEE2 AND #$01 $EEE4 BEQ $EEEA $EEE6 LDA #$04 $EEE8 STA $E1 $EEEA LDA #$34 $EEEC STA $90 $EEEE JSR $F376 $EEF1 JSR VINTwait $EEF4 LDA $90 $EEF6 CMP #$32 $EEF8 BNE $EEFE $EEFA LDA #$01 $EEFC STA $E1 $EEFE JSR $F0B4 $EF01 JSR RstPPU05 $EF04 JSR EnPfOBJ $EF07 JSR $EFE8 $EF0A LDX #$60 $EF0C LDY #$20 $EF0E JSR RndmNbrGen $EF11 JSR $F143 $EF14 JSR $F342 $EF17 LDX #$00 $EF19 JSR $F1E5 $EF1C LDX #$10 $EF1E JSR $F1E5 $EF21 LDA #$c0 $EF23 STA $00 $EF25 LDA #$00 $EF27 STA $01 $EF29 JSR $EC22 $EF2C LDA #$d0 $EF2E STA $00 $EF30 JSR $EC22 $EF33 LDA $4032 $EF36 AND #$01 $EF38 BNE $EEEA $EF3A LDA $FC $EF3C BEQ $EF42 $EF3E LDA #$01 $EF40 STA $FC $EF42 LDA $90 $EF44 BNE $EEEE $EF46 JSR DisOBJs $EF49 JSR VINTwait $EF4C JSR PPUdataPrsr,$EFFF $EF51 JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F01C $EF56 JSR RstPPU05 $EF59 JSR LoadFiles,$EFF5,$EFF5;load the FDS disk boot files $EF60 BNE $EF6C $EF62 JSR $F431 $EF65 BEQ $EFAF $EF67 JSR $F5FB $EF6A LDA #$20 $EF6C STA $23 $EF6E JSR InitGfx $EF71 JSR $F0E1 $EF74 JSR $F0E7 $EF77 JSR $F0ED $EF7A JSR $F179 $EF7D LDA #$10 $EF7F STA $A3 $EF81 LDA $22 $EF83 BEQ $EF8B $EF85 LDA #$01 $EF87 STA $83 $EF89 DEC $21 $EF8B JSR $F376 $EF8E JSR VINTwait $EF91 JSR $E86A $EF94 JSR RstPPU05 $EF97 JSR EnPF $EF9A JSR $EFE8 $EF9D LDA #$02 $EF9F STA $E1 $EFA1 LDA $A3 $EFA3 BNE $EF8B $EFA5 LDA $4032 $EFA8 AND #$01 $EFAA BEQ $EFA5 $EFAC JMP Reset $EFAF LDA #$20 $EFB1 STA $A2 $EFB3 JSR VINTwait $EFB6 JSR RstPPU05 $EFB9 JSR EnPF $EFBC LDX $FC $EFBE INX $EFBF INX $EFC0 CPX #$b0 $EFC2 BCS $EFC6 $EFC4 STX $FC $EFC6 JSR $EFE8 $EFC9 LDA $A2 $EFCB BNE $EFB3 $EFCD LDA #$35 $EFCF STA $0102 $EFD2 LDA #$ac $EFD4 STA $0103 $EFD7 JSR DisPF $EFDA LDY #$07 $EFDC JSR $F48C $EFDF LDA #$00 $EFE1 STA $FD $EFE3 STA $FC $EFE5 JMP $EE9B $EFE8 JSR $FF5C $EFEB LDX #$80 $EFED LDA #$9f $EFEF LDY #$bf $EFF1 JSR $E9D3 $EFF4 RTS FFFFFFFFFFFF0000FFFF $EFFF 21A6 54 24 FF $F004 21A6 14 19150E0A1C0E241C0E1D240D121C14240C0A1B0D FF $F01C 21A6 0E 1718202415180A0D121710262626 FF 0D121C14241C0E1D0B0A1D1D0E1B2224 0A250B241C120D0E0D121C1424171826 21A6140D121C14241D1B181E0B150E24 240E1B1B260200FF20E810191B0A1624 0C1B0A16242424242418142168041918 1B1D3F00080F200F0F0F0F0F0F2BC050 002BD07055FF ;$F094 80B80000000000001000320000000100 80B800F000000000000132180000FF00 $F0B4 LDA $FC $F0B6 BEQ $F0C0 $F0B8 DEC $FC $F0BA BNE $F0C0 $F0BC LDA #$10 $F0BE STA $94 $F0C0 LDX $94 $F0C2 BEQ $F0CD $F0C4 DEX $F0C5 BEQ $F0E1 $F0C7 DEX $F0C8 BEQ $F0E7 $F0CA DEX $F0CB BEQ $F0ED $F0CD JSR $E9C8 $F0D0 JSR $E86A $F0D3 LDA $92 $F0D5 BNE $F0F3 $F0D7 JSR PPUdataPrsr,$EFFF $F0DC LDA #$40 $F0DE STA $92 $F0E0 RTS $F0E1 JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F716 $F0E6 RTS $F0E7 JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F723 $F0EC RTS $F0ED JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F72C $F0F2 RTS $F0F3 CMP #$2e $F0F5 BNE $F0FC $F0F7 JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F004 $F0FC RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;fill $0200-$02FF with $F4 $F0FD LDA #$f4 $F0FF LDX #$02 $F101 LDY #$02 $F103 JSR MemFill ;move data ;for I:=0 to $1F do [$C0+I]:=[$F094+I] $F106 LDY #$20 $F108 LDA $F093,Y $F10B STA $00BF,Y $F10E DEY $F10F BNE $F108 ;fill $0230-$02FF with random data ;for I:=$0230 to $02FF do [I]:=Random(256) $F111 LDA #$d0; loop count $F113 STA $60; load random number target with any data $F115 STA $01; save loop count in [$01] $F117 LDY #$02 $F119 LDX #$60 $F11B JSR RndmNbrGen; [$60] and [$61] are random number target $F11E LDA $60; get random number $F120 LDX $01; load loop count (and index) $F122 STA $022F,X; write out random # $F125 DEX $F126 STX $01; save loop count $F128 BNE $F117 ;fill every 4th byte in random data area with $33 ;for I:=0 to $33 do [I*4+$0231]:=$18 $F12A LDA #$18 $F12C LDX #$d0 $F12E STA $022D,X $F131 DEX $F132 DEX $F133 DEX $F134 DEX $F135 BNE $F12E ;and & or every 4th byte in random data ;for I:=0 to $33 do [I*4+$0232]:=([I*4+$0232]-1)and $03 or $20 $F137 LDX #$d0 $F139 STX $24 $F13B JSR $F156 $F13E CPX #$d0 $F140 BNE $F13B $F142 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $F143 LDA $84 $F145 BNE $F156 $F147 LDA #$04 $F149 STA $84 $F14B LDX #$d0 $F14D DEC $022C,X $F150 DEX $F151 DEX $F152 DEX $F153 DEX $F154 BNE $F14D ;for I:=0 to 3 do ; [$022E+X]:=([$022E+X]-1)and $03 or $20 ; X-=4 ; if X=0 then X:=$d0 ;end $F156 LDY #$04 $F158 LDX $24 $F15A DEC $022E,X $F15D LDA #$03 $F15F AND $022E,X $F162 ORA #$20 $F164 STA $022E,X $F167 DEX $F168 DEX $F169 DEX $F16A DEX $F16B BNE $F16F $F16D LDX #$d0 $F16F STX $24 $F171 DEY $F172 BNE $F158 $F174 RTS $F175 DB 01 02 07 08 $F179 LDY #$18 $F17B LDA $F04D,Y $F17E STA $003F,Y $F181 DEY $F182 BNE $F17B $F184 LDA $23 $F186 AND #$0f $F188 STA $56 $F18A LDA $23 $F18C LSR A $F18D LSR A $F18E LSR A $F18F LSR A $F190 STA $55 $F192 CMP #$02 $F194 BEQ $F1BD $F196 LDY #$0e $F198 LDA #$24 $F19A STA $0042,Y $F19D DEY $F19E BNE $F19A $F1A0 LDY #$05 $F1A2 LDA $23 $F1A4 DEY $F1A5 BEQ $F1BD $F1A7 CMP $F174,Y $F1AA BNE $F1A4 $F1AC TYA $F1AD ASL A $F1AE ASL A $F1AF ASL A $F1B0 TAX $F1B1 LDY #$07 $F1B3 DEX $F1B4 LDA $F02E,X $F1B7 STA $0043,Y $F1BA DEY $F1BB BPL $F1B3 $F1BD JSR PPUdataPrsr,$0040 $F1C2 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;copy font bitmaps into PPU memory ;src:CPU[$E001] dest:PPU[$1000] tiles:41 (41*8 bytes, 1st plane is inverted) LoadFonts: LDA #$0d $F1C5 LDY #$10 $F1C7 LDX #$29 $F1C9 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$E001 ;copy inverted font bitmaps from PPU mem to [$0400] ;src:PPU[$1000] dest:CPU[$0400] tiles:41 (41*8 bytes) $F1CE LDA #$06 $F1D0 LDY #$10 $F1D2 LDX #$29 $F1D4 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$0400 ;copy back fonts & set first plane to all 1's ;src:CPU[$0400] dest:PPU[$1000] tiles:41 (41*8 bytes, 1st plane is all 1's) $F1D9 LDA #$09 $F1DB LDY #$10 $F1DD LDX #$29 $F1DF JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$0400 $F1E4 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $F1E5 JSR $F1F2 $F1E8 JSR $F2EC $F1EB JSR $F273 $F1EE JSR $F2C6 $F1F1 RTS $F1F2 LDA $20,X $F1F4 BNE $F227 $F1F6 LDA $C0,X $F1F8 BNE $F227 $F1FA LDA $B0 $F1FC BNE $F227 $F1FE LDA $81,X $F200 BNE $F227 $F202 LDA $62,X $F204 AND #$3c $F206 STA $81,X $F208 TXA $F209 BNE $F228 $F20B LDA $B2 $F20D BNE $F236 $F20F LDA $D0 $F211 BEQ $F23D $F213 LDA $22 $F215 BNE $F21D $F217 LDA $C3 $F219 CMP #$78 $F21B BCC $F24D $F21D LDA #$00 $F21F STA $C8,X $F221 STA $CF,X $F223 LDA #$ff $F225 STA $CE,X $F227 RTS $F228 LDA $C0 $F22A BEQ $F25A $F22C LDA $22 $F22E BNE $F21D $F230 LDA $63,X $F232 CMP #$80 $F234 BCS $F24D $F236 LDA #$00 $F238 STA $CF,X $F23A STA $CE,X $F23C RTS $F23D LDA $C8 $F23F BNE $F247 $F241 LDA $63,X $F243 CMP #$c0 $F245 BCC $F21D $F247 LDA $64,X $F249 CMP #$80 $F24B BCC $F236 $F24D LDA #$10 $F24F STA $C8,X $F251 LDA #$00 $F253 STA $CF,X $F255 LDA #$01 $F257 STA $CE,X $F259 RTS $F25A LDA $64,X $F25C LDY $C8 $F25E BEQ $F264 $F260 CMP #$40 $F262 BCC $F24D $F264 CMP #$c0 $F266 BCC $F236 $F268 LDA #$40 $F26A STA $CF,X $F26C LDA #$00 $F26E STA $CE,X $F270 STA $C8,X $F272 RTS $F273 LDA $20,X $F275 BEQ $F2AA $F277 BMI $F2AB $F279 CLC $F27A LDA #$30 $F27C ADC $CD,X $F27E STA $CD,X $F280 LDA #$00 $F282 ADC $CC,X $F284 STA $CC,X $F286 CLC $F287 LDA $CD,X $F289 ADC $C2,X $F28B STA $C2,X $F28D LDA $CC,X $F28F ADC $C1,X $F291 CMP #$b8 $F293 BCC $F2A4 $F295 TXA $F296 BNE $F2B6 $F298 LDA $60,X $F29A AND #$30 $F29C STA $81,X $F29E LDA #$00 $F2A0 STA $20,X $F2A2 LDA #$b8 $F2A4 STA $C1,X $F2A6 LDA #$03 $F2A8 STA $C5,X $F2AA RTS $F2AB DEC $20,X $F2AD LDA #$fd $F2AF STA $CC,X $F2B1 LDA #$00 $F2B3 STA $CD,X $F2B5 RTS $F2B6 STA $C8,X $F2B8 LDA #$01 $F2BA STA $CE,X $F2BC LDA #$c0 $F2BE STA $CF,X $F2C0 LDA #$ff $F2C2 STA $81,X $F2C4 BNE $F29E $F2C6 LDA $B0 $F2C8 BNE $F2E7 $F2CA LDA $A1,X $F2CC BNE $F2E7 $F2CE LDA $C0,X $F2D0 BEQ $F2E7 $F2D2 LDA $62,X $F2D4 ORA #$10 $F2D6 AND #$3c $F2D8 STA $81,X $F2DA LDY #$10 $F2DC LDA $F094,X $F2DF STA $C0,X $F2E1 INX $F2E2 DEY $F2E3 BNE $F2DC $F2E5 STY $B0,X $F2E7 RTS $F2E8 DB 00 02 01 02 $F2EC LDA $C0,X $F2EE BNE $F329 $F2F0 CLC $F2F1 LDA $CF,X $F2F3 ADC $C4,X $F2F5 STA $C4,X $F2F7 LDA $CE,X $F2F9 ADC $C3,X $F2FB LDY $B0 $F2FD CPY #$20 $F2FF BCS $F315 $F301 CMP #$f8 $F303 BCC $F32A $F305 CPY #$1f $F307 BCS $F315 $F309 LDA $60,X $F30B AND #$2f $F30D ORA #$06 $F30F STA $A1,X $F311 LDA #$80 $F313 STA $C0,X $F315 STA $C3,X $F317 LSR A $F318 LSR A $F319 AND #$03 $F31B TAY $F31C LDA $CE,X $F31E ORA $CF,X $F320 BNE $F324 $F322 LDY #$01 $F324 LDA $F2E8,Y $F327 STA $C5,X $F329 RTS $F32A CMP #$78 $F32C BNE $F315 $F32E CPX $22 $F330 BNE $F315 $F332 LDY $20,X $F334 BNE $F315 $F336 LDY #$00 $F338 STY $CE,X $F33A STY $CF,X $F33C LDY #$80 $F33E STY $20,X $F340 BNE $F315 $F342 LDA $B0 $F344 BNE $F36D $F346 LDA $C0 $F348 ORA $D0 $F34A BNE $F36D $F34C CLC $F34D LDA $C3 $F34F ADC #$19 $F351 CMP $D3 $F353 BCC $F36D $F355 STA $D3 $F357 LDA #$02 $F359 STA $CE $F35B STA $DE $F35D LDA #$00 $F35F STA $CF $F361 STA $DF $F363 LDA #$10 $F365 STA $C8 $F367 STA $D8 $F369 LDA #$30 $F36B STA $B0 $F36D RTS $F36E DB 2A 0A 25 05 21 01 27 16 $F376 LDY #$08 $F378 LDA $83 $F37A BNE $F3C8 $F37C LDA $93 $F37E BNE $F3EF $F380 LDX #$00 $F382 LDA $C1,X $F384 CMP #$a4 $F386 BCS $F39E $F388 LDA #$20 $F38A LDY $B2 $F38C BNE $F39C $F38E LDA #$08 $F390 LDY $65 $F392 CPY #$18 $F394 BCS $F39C $F396 LDA #$08 $F398 STA $B2 $F39A LDA #$20 $F39C STA $83,X $F39E CPX #$10 $F3A0 LDX #$10 $F3A2 BCC $F382 $F3A4 LDA $22 $F3A6 BEQ $F3C7 $F3A8 LDA $82 $F3AA BNE $F3C7 $F3AC LDA #$08 $F3AE STA $82 $F3B0 LDX #$0f $F3B2 LDA $47 $F3B4 CMP #$0f $F3B6 BNE $F3BA $F3B8 LDX #$16 $F3BA STX $47 $F3BC LDA #$3f $F3BE LDX #$08 $F3C0 LDY #$08 $F3C2 JSR $E8D2,$0040 $F3C7 RTS $F3C8 LDA $F634,Y $F3CB STA $003F,Y $F3CE DEY $F3CF BNE $F3C8 $F3D1 INC $21 $F3D3 LDA $21 $F3D5 AND #$06 $F3D7 TAY $F3D8 LDA $F36E,Y $F3DB STA $42 $F3DD LDA $F36F,Y $F3E0 STA $43 $F3E2 LDY #$00 $F3E4 LDA $B2 $F3E6 BNE $F3EA $F3E8 LDY #$10 $F3EA STY $22 $F3EC JMP $F3BC $F3EF LDA $F63F,Y $F3F2 STA $003F,Y $F3F5 DEY $F3F6 BNE $F3EF $F3F8 BEQ $F3EA ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;initialize graphicsغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;this subroutine copies pattern tables from ROM into the VRAM, and also ;sets up the name & palette tables. ;entry point InitGfx: JSR DisPfOBJ; disable objects & playfield for video xfers ;src:CPU[$F735] dest:PPU[$1300] xfer:88 tiles $F3FD LDA #$00 $F3FF LDX #$58 $F401 LDY #$13 $F403 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$F735 ;src:CPU[$FCA5] dest:PPU[$0000] xfer:25 tiles $F408 LDA #$00 $F40A LDX #$19 $F40C LDY #$00 $F40E JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$FCA5 $F413 JSR LoadFonts; load fonts from ROM into video mem ;dest:PPU[$2000] NTfillVal:=$6D ATfillVal:=$aa $F416 LDA #$20 $F418 LDX #$6d $F41A LDY #$aa $F41C JSR VRAMfill ;dest:PPU[$2800] NTfillVal:=$6D ATfillVal:=$aa $F41F LDA #$28 $F421 LDX #$6d $F423 LDY #$aa $F425 JSR VRAMfill $F428 JSR VINTwait $F42B JSR PPUdataPrsr,InitNT; initialize name table $F430 RTS ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ ;غغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغغ $F431 JSR DisPfOBJ $F434 LDY #$03 $F436 JSR $F48C $F439 JSR LoadFonts $F43C JSR VINTwait $F43F JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F080 $F444 LDA #$20 $F446 LDX #$28 $F448 LDY #$00 $F44A JSR VRAMfill $F44D LDA $FF $F44F AND #$fb $F451 STA $FF $F453 STA $2000; [NES] PPU setup #1 $F456 LDX $2002; [NES] PPU status $F459 LDX #$28 $F45B STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $F45E LDA #$00 $F460 STA $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $F463 LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $F466 LDY #$00 $F468 LDA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $F46B CMP $ED37,Y $F46E BNE $F483 $F470 INY $F471 CPY #$e0 $F473 BNE $F468 $F475 STX $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $F478 STY $2006; [NES] VRAM address select $F47B LDA #$24 $F47D STA $2007; [NES] VRAM data $F480 INY $F481 BNE $F47B $F483 RTS $F484 DB 02 30 10 29 32 00 29 10 $F48C LDX #$03 $F48E LDA $F484,Y $F491 STA $07,X $F493 DEY $F494 DEX $F495 BPL $F48E $F497 LDA #$29 $F499 STA $0B $F49B LDA $07 $F49D LDX #$01 $F49F LDY $09 $F4A1 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$0010 $F4A6 LDA $08 $F4A8 LDX #$01 $F4AA LDY $0A $F4AC JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$0010 $F4B1 LDY #$01 $F4B3 CLC $F4B4 LDA #$10 $F4B6 ADC $0007,Y $F4B9 STA $0007,Y $F4BC LDA #$00 $F4BE ADC $0009,Y $F4C1 STA $0009,Y $F4C4 DEY $F4C5 BPL $F4B3 $F4C7 DEC $0B $F4C9 BNE $F49B $F4CB RTS $F4CC LDA #$20 $F4CE LDX #$24 $F4D0 LDY #$00 $F4D2 JSR VRAMfill $F4D5 JSR VINTwait $F4D8 JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F066 $F4DD JSR $F5FB $F4E0 BNE $F527 $F4E2 LDA #$00 $F4E4 LDX #$00 $F4E6 LDY #$00 $F4E8 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$C000 $F4ED LDA #$00 $F4EF LDX #$00 $F4F1 LDY #$10 $F4F3 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$D000 $F4F8 LDA #$02 $F4FA LDX #$00 $F4FC LDY #$00 $F4FE JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$C000 $F503 LDA #$02 $F505 LDX #$00 $F507 LDY #$10 $F509 JSR CPUtoPPUcpy,$D000 $F50E LDA #$C0 $F510 STA $01 $F512 LDY #$00 $F514 STY $00 $F516 LDX #$20 $F518 LDA #$7f $F51A ADC #$02 $F51C JSR $F61B $F51F BEQ $F54E $F521 LDA $01 $F523 AND #$03 $F525 STA $01 $F527 LDA #$11 $F529 STA $0B $F52B LDY #$03 $F52D LDA $00 $F52F TAX $F530 AND #$0F $F532 STA $0007,Y $F535 DEY $F536 TXA $F537 LSR A $F538 LSR A $F539 LSR A $F53A LSR A $F53B STA $0007,Y $F53E LDA $01 $F540 DEY $F541 BPL $F52F $F543 LDA #$20 $F545 LDX #$f4 $F547 LDY #$05 $F549 JSR $E8D2,$0007 $F54E JSR LoadFonts $F551 JSR GetCtrlrSts $F554 LDA $F7 $F556 CMP #$81 $F558 BNE $F5B8 $F55A JSR PPUdataPrsr,$F56B $F55F JSR VINTwait $F562 JSR RstPPU05 $F565 JSR EnPF $F568 JMP $F568 20E7 11 020C03032412171D0E1B170A15241B1816 2163 19 191B18101B0A160E0D240B22241D0A140A18241C0A200A1718 21A3 19 1712171D0E170D18240C1827151D0D26240D0E1F2617182602 FF $F5B8 LDA #$01 $F5BA STA $0F $F5BC LDA #$ff $F5BE CLC $F5BF PHA $F5C0 PHP $F5C1 JSR VINTwait $F5C4 JSR $E86A $F5C7 JSR RstPPU05 $F5CA JSR EnPF $F5CD DEC $0F $F5CF BNE $F5DD $F5D1 PLP $F5D2 PLA $F5D3 STA $4026 $F5D6 ROL A $F5D7 PHA $F5D8 PHP $F5D9 LDA #$19 $F5DB STA $0F $F5DD LDA $4033 $F5E0 LDX #$07 $F5E2 LDY #$01 $F5E4 ASL A $F5E5 BCS $F5E8 $F5E7 DEY $F5E8 STY $07,X $F5EA DEX $F5EB BPL $F5E2 $F5ED LDA #$21 $F5EF LDX #$70 $F5F1 LDY #$08 $F5F3 JSR $E8D2,$0007 $F5F8 JMP $F5C1 $F5FB LDA #$60 $F5FD LDX #$80 $F5FF STX $03 $F601 PHA $F602 STA $01 $F604 LDY #$00 $F606 STY $00 $F608 CLV $F609 JSR $F61B $F60C PLA $F60D STA $01 $F60F STY $00 $F611 LDX $03 $F613 LDA #$7f $F615 ADC #$02 $F617 JSR $F61B $F61A RTS $F61B STX $02 $F61D LDA $02 $F61F BVS $F62E $F621 STA ($00),Y $F623 INC $02 $F625 DEY $F626 BNE $F61D $F628 INC $01 $F62A DEX $F62B BNE $F61B $F62D RTS $F62E CMP ($00),Y $F630 BEQ $F623 $F632 STY $00 $F634 RTS ;$F635 0F 30 27 16 0F 10 00 16 ;PPU processor data InitNT: 3F08 18 0F21010F0F0002010F2716010F27301A0F0F010F0F0F0F0F 20E4 02 6E73 20E6 54 77 20FA 02 787C 2104 02 6F74 2106 54 24 211A 02 797D 2124 C5 70 213B C5 70 2125 C5 24 213A C5 24 21C4 02 7175 21C6 54 24 21DA 02 7A7E 21E4 02 7276 21E6 54 77 21FA 02 7B7F 2126 14 3034383B3F2424474B2424242424245D61242428 2146 14 3135323C404346484C4E513C54575A5E6265686B 2166 14 3236393D414432494D4F523D55585B5F6366696C 2186 14 33373A3E4245334A4550533E56595C6064676A24 21A6 54 24 220F C4 83 2210 C4 84 228F 02 8586 23E0 50 FF 23F0 48 AF FF 2040 60 80 2020 60 81 2000 60 81 FF 2340 60 80 2360 60 81 FF 2380 60 82 23A0 60 82 FF ;PATTERN TABLE DATA ;$F735 FFC0C0C0C0C0C0C080BFBFBFBFBFBFBF C0C0C0C0C0C0C0C0BFBFBFBFBFBFBFBF C0C0C0C0C0C0C0C0BFBFBFBFBFBFBFBF C0C0C0FFFFFFFFFFBFBFBFFFFFFFFFFF 7F7F3F3F1F1F0F0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 078783C3C1E1E0F0FF7F7FBFBFDFDFEF F0F8F8FCFCFEFEFFEFF7F7FBFBFDFDFE FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFC0C0C0C0C0C0C080BFBFBFBFBFBFBF 0000000000000000FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 008080FFFFFFFFFFFF7F7FFFFFFFFFFF FFE0E0E0E0FFFFFFC0DFDFDFDFFFFFFF FFE0E0E0E0E0E0E0C0DFDFDFDFDFDFDF E0E0E0E0E0E0E0E0DFDFDFDFDFDFDFDF E0E0E0FFFFFFFFFFDFDFDFFFFFFFFFFF FF7F7F7F7FFFFFFF7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FF7070707070707060EFEFEFEFEFEFEF 7070707070707070EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF 707070FFFFFFFFFFEFEFEFFFFFFFFFFF FF20000F1F1F3F3F20DFFFFEFFFFFFFF 3F3F3F3F3F3F3F3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 3F3F3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FF7F1F078181C0C07F9FE7FB7F7FBFBF FFFFFFFFFFF0F0F0FFFFFFFFE0EFEF0F 8090F0F0F0F0F0F07F6FEFEFEFEFEFEF F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0EFEFEFEFEFEFEFEF F0F0F0FFFFFFFFFFEFEFEFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFF3F3F3FFFFFFFFF3FFFFFC7 07073F3F3E3E3C3CFFFFFFFEFDFDFBFB 3C3C3C3C3C3E3E3EFBFBFBFBFBFDFDFF FFE0800F1F1F1F3FE09F7FFFFFFFFFC0 00001F1F1F1F1F1FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEF 0F80E0FFFFFFFFFFF0FFFFFFFFFFFFFF FF3F0FC7E1E1E0E03FCFF7BBDFDFDF1F 0000FFFFE0E1E1C3FFFFFFC0DFDFDFBF 870F3FFFFFFFFFFF7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FF40001C3F3F7F7F40BFFFFFFEFEFFFF 7F7F7F7F7F7F7F7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 7F7F7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFF3F0F03038181FF3FCFF7FFFF7F7F 81818181818181817F7F7F7F7F7F7F7F 818181FFFFFFFFFF7F7F7FFFFFFFFFFF FFFCF0E0E0C0C0C0FCF3EFDFDFBFBFBF C0C0C0C0C0C0E0E0BFBFBFBFBFBFDFDF F0F0FCFFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFEFEFEFEFEFEFEFCFDFDFDFDFDFDFD FE0602007CFEFEFE05F9FDFFFBFDFDFD FEFEFEFEFEFEFC78FDFDFDFDFDFD7B87 020206FFFFFFFFFFFDFDFDFFFFFFFFFF FF0707070707070707FFFFFFFFFFFFFF 0707070707070707FFFFFFFFFFFFFEFE 0707070707070707FEFEFEFEFEFFFFFF 070707FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFF8E0C183870707F8E7DFBF7F7FFFFF 07070707078783C3FFFFFFFFFF7F7FBD E1E0F8FFFFFFFFFFDEFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FF0F03C1F0F8F8F80FF3FDFEEFF7F7F7 F8F8F8F8F8F8F0E0F7F7F7F7F7F7EFDF C1030FFFFFFFFFFF3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF7F7F3F3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 3F3F3F3F3F7F7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000103060C18100003060C1933276F 30202060404040404F5EDC9CB9B9B9B9 4040404040404040B9B9B9B9B9B9B9B9 4040404060202020B9B9B9B99CDE5F5F 10000000000000006F3F3F1F0E070300 007FC00000000000FF803FFFFFF0C08F 071F3F7F7FFFFFFF3F7FFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFF7F7F3F1F07FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 100F000000000000EFF0FFFFFF0080FF 00FF000000000000FF00FFFFFF0000FF 00FA000000000000FF05FFFFFF3F1FFF E0F9FCFEFEFFFFFFFFFEFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFEFEFCF9E3FFFFFFFFFFFFFEFC 0EF8000000000000F107FFFFFC0001FF 000000000000000000C0E0F0F8FCFCFE 0000808040404040FEFA7B79B9B9B9B9 40404040C0808000B9B9B9B9397372E2 0000000000000000E6C48C183060C000 00FF00FF00FF00FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FF00FFFFFF00FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFF00FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 06060606060606000000000000000000 60606060606060000000000000000000 1F5F505757501F002020AFA7A7AF603F F8FA0AEAEA0AF8000404F5E5E5F506FC ;$FCA5 000000000000031F00000003030F0002 3F1F0F0720707020041E000001030F1F 00040F1F0F0C00000F072F3F3F1C1800 000000000000F0F800000080E0F0F048 F8FCF8E010103226489C0800F0FCFCF8 7CF8F8FCFC780000F8F8F8FCFC7C1C38 00000000000000070000000007071F01 3F7F3F1F0F01C2C204083D0000070F1F C6071F1F0F0F00003F7F1D1F0F0F070F 00000000000000E00000000000C0E0E0 F0F0F8F0C00000009090381000E0F0F8 0C1CFCF8F8780000F0E0E0F4FE7E0200 000000000000031F00000003030F0002 3F1F0F0700010113041E000003070F0F 1F1F0F07070300000F0D0F0707030001 000000000000F0F800000080E0F0F048 F8FCF8E0800000C0489C0800E0F0F8F8 80C0F0F0F0E00000F8301030F0E0E0E0 001C1E0E0400000700000010183B3838 0F070303060C090F313F1C1E0F0F4F4F 1F1F1F07000000007E7F7F0700000000 000000000000FCFE000000E0F8FC3C92 FEFFFEF860C0838712A70200FCFEFCF0 D2F0E0F0F0600000F0F8FCFEF2600000 00000000000000008000000000000000 $FE35 DB FF $FE36 LSR A $FE37 BCS $FE66 $FE39 LSR $E1 $FE3B BCS $FE47 $FE3D LSR A $FE3E BCS $FEA6 $FE40 LSR $E1 $FE42 BCS $FE7A $FE44 JMP $FF6A $FE47 LDA #$10 $FE49 STA $4000; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FE4C LDA #$01 $FE4E STA $4008; [NES] Audio - Triangle $FE51 STY $E3 $FE53 LDA #$20 $FE55 STA $E4 $FE57 LDX #$5c $FE59 LDY #$7f $FE5B STX $4004; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FE5E STY $4005; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FE61 LDA #$f9 $FE63 STA $4007; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FE66 LDA $E4 $FE68 LSR A $FE69 BCC $FE6F $FE6B LDA #$0d $FE6D BNE $FE71 $FE6F LDA #$7c $FE71 STA $4006; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FE74 JMP $FFC6 $FE77 JMP $FFCA $FE7A STY $E3 $FE7C LDX #$9c $FE7E LDY #$7f $FE80 STX $4000; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FE83 STX $4004; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FE86 STY $4001; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FE89 STY $4005; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FE8C LDA #$20 $FE8E STA $4008; [NES] Audio - Triangle $FE91 LDA #$01 $FE93 STA $400C; [NES] Audio - Noise control reg $FE96 LDX #$00 $FE98 STX $E9 $FE9A STX $EA $FE9C STX $EB $FE9E LDA #$01 $FEA0 STA $E6 $FEA2 STA $E7 $FEA4 STA $E8 $FEA6 DEC $E6 $FEA8 BNE $FEC1 $FEAA LDY $E9 $FEAC INY $FEAD STY $E9 $FEAF LDA $FF1F,Y $FEB2 BEQ $FE77 $FEB4 JSR $FFE9 $FEB7 STA $E6 $FEB9 TXA $FEBA AND #$3e $FEBC LDX #$04 $FEBE JSR $FFD9 $FEC1 DEC $E7 $FEC3 BNE $FEDA $FEC5 LDY $EA $FEC7 INY $FEC8 STY $EA $FECA LDA $FF33,Y $FECD JSR $FFE9 $FED0 STA $E7 $FED2 TXA $FED3 AND #$3e $FED5 LDX #$00 $FED7 JSR $FFD9 $FEDA DEC $E8 $FEDC BNE $FEFD $FEDE LDA #$09 $FEE0 STA $400E; [NES] Audio - Noise Frequency reg #1 $FEE3 LDA #$08 $FEE5 STA $400F; [NES] Audio - Noise Frequency reg #2 $FEE8 LDY $EB $FEEA INY $FEEB STY $EB $FEED LDA $FF46,Y $FEF0 JSR $FFE9 $FEF3 STA $E8 $FEF5 TXA $FEF6 AND #$3e $FEF8 LDX #$08 $FEFA JSR $FFD9 $FEFD JMP $FF6A 0357000008D408BD08B209AB097C093F 091C08FD08EE09FC09DF060C12180848 CACED413110F9010C4C8070515C4D2D4 8E0C4F00D6D6CA0B19179818CED41513 11D2CACC961857CE0F0F0FCECECECECE 0F0F0FCECECECECE0F0F0FCE $FF5C LDY $E1 $FF5E LDA $E3 $FF60 LSR $E1 $FF62 BCS $FF7B $FF64 LSR A $FF65 BCS $FF9A $FF67 JMP $FE36 $FF6A LDA #$00 $FF6C STA $E1 $FF6E RTS $FF6F DB 06 0C 12 47 5F 71 5F 71 8E 71 8E BE $FF7B STA $E3 $FF7D LDA #$12 $FF7F STA $E4 $FF81 LDA #$02 $FF83 STA $E5 $FF85 LDX #$9f $FF87 LDY #$7f $FF89 STX $4000; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FF8C STX $4004; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FF8F STY $4001; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FF92 STY $4005; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FF95 LDA #$20 $FF97 STA $4008; [NES] Audio - Triangle $FF9A LDA $E4 $FF9C LDY $E5 $FF9E CMP $FF6F,Y $FFA1 BNE $FFC6 $FFA3 LDA $FF72,Y $FFA6 STA $4002; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FFA9 LDX #$58 $FFAB STX $4003; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FFAE LDA $FF75,Y $FFB1 STA $4006; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FFB4 STX $4007; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FFB7 LDA $FF78,Y $FFBA STA $400A; [NES] Audio - Triangle $FFBD STX $400B; [NES] Audio - Triangle $FFC0 LDA $E5 $FFC2 BEQ $FFC6 $FFC4 DEC $E5 $FFC6 DEC $E4 $FFC8 BNE $FFD6 $FFCA LDA #$00 $FFCC STA $E3 $FFCE LDA #$10 $FFD0 STA $4000; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FFD3 STA $4004; [NES] Audio - Square 2 $FFD6 JMP $FF6A $FFD9 TAY $FFDA LDA $FF01,Y $FFDD BEQ $FFE8 $FFDF STA $4002,X; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FFE2 LDA $FF00,Y $FFE5 STA $4003,X; [NES] Audio - Square 1 $FFE8 RTS $FFE9 TAX $FFEA ROR A $FFEB TXA $FFEC ROL A $FFED ROL A $FFEE ROL A $FFEF AND #$07 $FFF1 TAY $FFF2 LDA $FF1A,Y $FFF5 RTS $FFF6 DW $FFFF $01FF NMI Reset IRQ EOF